Cannabinoids in bipolar affective disorder: a review and discussion of their therapeutic potential.

“Bipolar affective disorder is often poorly controlled by prescribed drugs.

Cannabis use is common in patients with this disorder and anecdotal reports suggest that some patients take it to alleviate symptoms of both mania and depression.

We undertook a literature review of cannabis use by patients with bipolar disorder and of the neuropharmacological properties of cannabinoids suggesting possible therapeutic effects in this condition.

No systematic studies of cannabinoids in bipolar disorder were found to exist, although some patients claim that cannabis relieves symptoms of mania and/or depression.

The cannabinoids Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) may exert sedative, hypnotic, anxiolytic, antidepressant, antipsychotic and anticonvulsant effects.

Pure synthetic cannabinoids, such as dronabinol and nabilone and specific plant extracts containing THC, CBD, or a mixture of the two in known concentrations, are available and can be delivered sublingually.

Controlled trials of these cannabinoids as adjunctive medication in bipolar disorder are now indicated.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15888515

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The cannabinoids: therapeutic potentials.

 

“A review of the therapeutic potentials of the cannabinoids is presented. With respect to the antifertility aspects of cannabinoids, 2 mg delta 9-THC suppressed luteinizing hormone secretion in rats and 2 and 3 mg/kg resulted in a deterioation of male sexual performance. A new chapter in marijuana research was opened in 1964 with the identification of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol as the active ingredient. Antiedema, analgesic, antipyretic, antiinflammatory, antifertility, antiepileptic, anticonvulsant, antihypertensive, cardiotonic, pulmonary, and antidepressant effects along with potentiation of barbiturates and analgesics are reviewed leading one to the conclusion that marijuana is “a drug for all reasons”. During the past decade many investigators have pursued the possibility of modification of the delta 9 structure to delineate activities. 1 compound, Abbott 40656, SP106, a water-soluble benzopyran derivative is presently under Phase 1 clinical evaluation as a sedative-hypnotic.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12307093/

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Blood pressure regulation by endocannabinoids and their receptors

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“Cannabinoids and their endogenous and synthetic analogs exert powerful hypotensive and cardiodepressor effects by complex mechanisms involving direct and indirect effects on myocardium and vasculature.

On the one hand, endocannabinoids and cannabinoid receptors have been implicated in the hypotensive state associated with hemorrhagic, endotoxic and cardiogenic shock, and advanced liver cirrhosis.

On the other hand, there is emerging evidence suggesting that the endocannabinergic system plays an important role in the cardiovascular regulation in hypertension.

This review is aimed to discuss the in vivo hypotensive and cardiodepressant effects of cannabinoids mediated by cannabinoid and TRPV1 receptors, and focuses on the novel therapeutical strategies offered by targeting the endocannabinoid system in the treatment of hypertension.

The endocannabinergic system plays an important cardiovascular regulatory role not only in pathophysiological conditions associated with excessive hypotension but also in hypertension.

Thus, the pharmacological manipulation of this system may offer novel therapeutic approaches in a variety of cardiovascular disorders.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2225528/

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Cannabis compound benefits blood vessels

This computer rendition shows how fatty deposits can narrow blood vessels.

“Low dose helps combat formation of arterial blockages.

A compound derived from the cannabis plant protects blood vessels from dangerous clogging, a study of mice has shown.

The compound, called delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), combats the blood-vessel disease atherosclerosis in mice.

The discovery could lead to new drugs to ward off heart disease and stroke.”

http://www.nature.com/news/2005/050404/full/news050404-7.html

 

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A frequent polymorphism in the coding exon of the human cannabinoid receptor (CNR1) gene.

“The central cannabinoid receptor (CB1) mediates the pharmacological activities of cannabis, the endogenous agonist anandamide and several synthetic agonists.

The cloning of the human cannabinoid receptor (CNR1) gene facilitates molecular genetic studies in disorders like Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), Parkinsons disease, Alzheimers disease or other neuro psychiatric or neurological diseases, which may be predisposed or influenced by mutations or variants in the CNR1 gene.

We detected a frequent silent mutation (1359G–>A) in codon 453 (Thr) of the CNR1 gene that turned out to be a common polymorphism in the German population. Allele frequencies of this polymorphism are 0.76 and 0.24, respectively.

We developed a simple and rapid polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assay by artificial creation of a Msp I restriction site in amplified wild-type DNA (G-allele), which is destroyed by the silent mutation (A-allele).

The intragenic CNR1 polymorphism 1359(G/A) should be useful for association studies in neuro psychiatric disorders which may be related to anandamide metabolism disturbances.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10441206

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Endocannabinoid analogues exacerbate marble-burying behavior in mice via TRPV1 receptor.

“Activation of cannabinoid CB(1) receptor is shown to inhibit marble-burying behavior (MBB), a behavioral model for assessing obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).

Anandamide, an endogenous agonist at CB(1) receptor also activates the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) channels but at a higher concentration.

Furthermore, anandamide-mediated TRPV1 effects are opposite to that of the CB(1) receptor. Therefore, the present study was carried out to investigate the influence of low and high doses of anandamide on MBB in CB(1) and TRPV1 antagonist pre-treated mice.

Thus, the study indicates the biphasic influence of anandamide on MBB, and chronic administration of capsazepine either alone or with URB597 might be an effective tool in the treatment of OCD.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22248639

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Facilitation of CB1 receptor-mediated neurotransmission decreases marble burying behavior in mice.

“Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common psychiatric disorder characterized by the occurrence of obsessions and compulsions.

Glutamatergic abnormalities have been related to the pathophysiology of OCD.

Cannabinoids inhibit glutamate release in the central nervous system, but the involvement of drugs targeting the endocannabinoid system has not yet been tested in animal models of repetitive behavior.

Thus, the aim of the present study was to verify the effects of the CB1 receptor agonist WIN55,212-2, the inhibitor of anandamide uptake AM404 and the anandamide hydrolysis inhibitor URB597, on compulsive-associate behavior in male C57BL/6J mice submitted to the marble burying test (MBT), an animal model used for anti-compulsive drug screening.

These results suggest a potential role for drugs acting on the cannabinoid system in modulating compulsive behavior.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21111767

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Cannabidiol inhibitory effect on marble-burying behaviour: involvement of CB1 receptors.

“Cannabidiol (CBD) is a major non-psychotomimetic component of Cannabis sativa that has been shown to have an anxiolytic effect in human and animal models.

Earlier studies suggest that these effects involve facilitation of serotonin, a neurotransmitter that has also been related to obsessive-compulsive disorder.

On the basis of this evidence, this study investigated the effects of CBD in C57BL/6J mice submitted to the marble-burying test (MBT), an animal model proposed to reflect compulsive behaviour.

CBD induced a significant decrease in the number of buried marbles compared with controls.

These results indicated that CBD and paroxetine decrease the number of buried marbles in the MBT through distinct pharmacological mechanisms.

They also suggest a potential role of drugs acting on the cannabinoid system in modulating compulsive behaviour.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20695034

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Study: Non-Psychoactive Cannabis Could Treat OCD

Leaf Science

“A non-psychoactive chemical in marijuana may be able to control symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder, according to new research out of Brazil.

Cannabidiol (CBD) is one of the major compounds found in marijuana, but lacks the high caused by THC.

Previous studies suggest that it can be used to combat anxiety and other obsessive-compulsive behaviors.

While research has mostly involved simple animal models, a team led by Dr. Francisco Guimarães of the University of Sao Paulo’s School of Medicine decided to test cannabidiol in rats that were given mCPP – a drug that blocks the effects of traditional OCD treatments.

Interestingly, even at low doses, CBD was able to reverse the obsessive-compulsive behavior caused by mCPP. Published in the journal Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology, the authors conclude that the study adds support to “a possible anti-compulsive effect of CBD.””

http://www.leafscience.com/2013/10/22/study-non-psychoactive-cannabis-treat-ocd/

“Cannabidiol reverses the mCPP-induced increase in marble-burying behavior.”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24118015

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Cannabidiol reverses the mCPP-induced increase in marble-burying behavior

Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology

“Cannabidiol (CBD), one of the main components of Cannabis sp., presents clinical and preclinical anxiolytic properties.

Recent results using the marble-burying test (MBT) suggest that CBD can also induce anticompulsive-like effects.

The results, in addition to reinforcing a possible anticompulsive effect of CBD, also suggest that mCPP-induced repetitive burying could be a useful test for the screening of compounds with presumed anticompulsive properties.”

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/fcp.12051/abstract

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