Cannabinoids reduce hyperalgesia and inflammation via interaction with peripheral CB1 receptors.

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“Central antinociceptive effects of cannabinoids have been well documented.

Our results indicate that cannabinoids produce antihyperalgesia via interaction with a peripheral CB1 receptor.

This hypothesis is supported by the finding that anandamide inhibited capsaicin-evoked release of calcitonin gene-related peptide from isolated hindpaw skin.

Collectively, these results indicate that cannabinoids reduce inflammation via interaction with a peripheral CB1 receptor.”

“The Endocannabinoid System and Pain. Cannabis has been used for more than twelve thousand years and for many different purposes (i.e. fiber, medicinal, recreational). However, the endocannabinoid signaling system has only recently been the focus of medical research and considered a potential therapeutic target. Cannabinoid receptors and their endogenous ligands are present at supraspinal, spinal and peripheral levels. Cannabinoids suppress behavioral responses to noxious stimulation and suppress nociceptive processing through activation of cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptor subtypes. These studies suggest that manipulation of peripheral endocannabinoids may be promising strategy for the management of pain.”

“The Analgesic Potential of Cannabinoids. Historically and anecdotally cannabinoids have been used as analgesic agents. Moreover, cannabinoids act synergistically with opioids and act as opioid sparing agents, allowing lower doses and fewer side effects from chronic opioid therapy. Thus, rational use of cannabis based medications deserves serious consideration to alleviate the suffering of patients due to severe pain.”
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Peripheral interactions between cannabinoid and opioid receptor agonists in a model of inflammatory mechanical hyperalgesia.

“Activation of opioid and cannabinoid receptors expressed in nociceptors induces effective antihyperalgesia.

In this study, we examined whether combinations of opioid and cannabinoid receptor agonists directed at the injured site would enhance therapeutic effectiveness.

Our findings showed that MOR and CB1 agonists directed at the inflamed site effectively attenuate mechanical hyperalgesia when administered individually, but exert opposing effects when administered together.

The antagonistic interactions between the two classes of drugs at the inflamed site suggest distinct mechanisms unique to peripheral nociceptors or inflamed tissue, and therefore require further studies to investigate whether the therapeutic utility of the combined drug treatments in chronic pain conditions can be optimized.”

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Role of ionotropic cannabinoid receptors in peripheral antinociception and antihyperalgesia

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“Although cannabinoids have been used for millennia for treating pain and other symptoms, their mechanisms of action remain obscure.

With the heralded identification of multiple G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) mediating cannabinoid effects nearly two decades ago, the mystery of cannabinoid pharmacology was thought to be solved…

Despite the wealth of information on cannabinoid-induced peripheral antihyperalgesic and antinociceptive effects in many pain models, the molecular mechanism(s) for these actions remains unknown.

Although metabotropic cannabinoid receptors have important roles in many pharmacological actions of cannabinoids, recent studies have led to the recognition of a family of at least five ionotropic cannabinoid receptors (ICRs). The known ICRs are members of the family of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels and include TRPV1, TRPV2, TRPV4, TRPM8 and TRPA1.

Cannabinoid activation of ICRs can result in desensitization of the TRPA1 and TRPV1 channel activities, inhibition of nociceptors and antihyperalgesia and antinociception in certain pain models.

Thus, cannabinoids activate both metabotropic and ionotropic mechanisms to produce peripheral analgesic effects.”

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CB2 receptor-mediated antihyperalgesia: possible direct involvement of neural mechanisms.

 “These results confirm that CB2 is present in the central nervous system and suggest that CB2 agonists may elicit their analgesic effect by acting not only at non-neuronal peripheral sites but also at neural level, making CB2 an attractive target for chronic pain treatment.”

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