Aplicaciones terapéuticas por acción de los cannabinoides.

“The interest on cannabinoids became evident between the 1940 and 1950 decades. Although the active substance of the plant was not known, a series of compounds with cannabinomimetic activity were synthesized, which were investigated in animals and clinically. The most widely tested was Δ6a, 10a-THC hexyl. Δ6a, 10a-THC dimethylheptyl (DMHP) antiepileptic effects were studied in several children, with positive results being obtained in some cases. DMHP differs from sinhexyl in that its side chain is DMHP instead of n-hexyl. The first cannabinoid isolated from Cannabis sativa was cannabinol, although its structure was correctly characterized several years later. Cannabidiol was isolated some years later and was subsequently characterized by Mechoulam and Shvo. In 2013, the National Academy of Medicine and the Faculty of Medicine of the National Autonomous University of Mexico, through the Seminar of Studies on Entirety, decided to carry out a systematic review on a subject that is both complex and controversial: the relationship between marijuana and health. In recent years, studies have been conducted with cannabis in several diseases: controlled clinical trials on spasticity in multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury, chronic, essentially neuropathic, pain, movement disorders (Gilles de Latourette, dystonia, levodopa dyskinesia), asthma and glaucoma, as well as non-controlled clinical trials on Alzheimer’s disease, neuroprotection, intractable hiccups, epilepsy, alcohol and opioid dependence and inflammatory processes.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31219471

http://gacetamedicademexico.com/frame_esp.php?id=310

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Endocannabinoid system: Role in depression, reward and pain control (Review).

 

“Depression and pain co-exist in almost 80% of patients and are associated with impaired health-related quality of life, often contributing to high mortality. However, the majority of patients who suffer from the comorbid depression and pain are not responsive to pharmacological treatments that address either pain or depression, making this comorbidity disorder a heavy burden on patients and society.

In ancient times, this depression-pain comorbidity was treated using extracts of the Cannabis sativa plant, known now as marijuana and the mode of action of Δ9‑tetrahydrocannabinol, the active cannabinoid ingredient of marijuana, has only recently become known, with the identification of cannabinoidreceptor type 1 (CB1) and CB2.

Subsequent investigations led to the identification of endocannabinoids, anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol, which exert cannabinomimetic effects through the CB1 and CB2 receptors, which are located on presynaptic membranes in the central nervous system and in peripheral tissues, respectively.

These endocannabinoids are produced from membrane lipids and are lipohilic molecules that are synthesized on demand and are eliminated rapidly after their usage by hydrolyzing enzymes.

Clinical studies revealed altered endocannabinoid signaling in patients with chronic pain.

Considerable evidence suggested the involvement of the endocannabinoid system in eliciting potent effects on neurotransmission, neuroendocrine, and inflammatory processes, which are known to be deranged in depression and chronic pain.

Several synthetic cannabinomimetic drugs are being developed to treat pain and depression. However, the precise mode of action of endocannabinoids on different targets in the body and whether their effects on pain and depression follow the same or different pathways, remains to be determined.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27484193

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[Benefits of an add-on treatment with the synthetic cannabinomimetic nabilone on patients with chronic pain–a randomized controlled trial].

“The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and efficiency of an add-on treatment with the synthetic cannabinomimetic nabilone on patients with chronic pain. Of major interest were the evaluation of the influence the treatment had on pain and on quality of life as well as the subjective assessment of positive effects and side effects by the study participants…

CONCLUSION:

In summary, the study results allow the conclusion that a majority of patients with chronic pain classify nabilone intake in addition to the standard treatment as a measure with a positive individual benefit-riskratio. Thus, this kind of treatment may be an interesting and attractive enrichment of analgetic therapy concepts.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16855921

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