Reprint of: survey of medicinal cannabis use among childbearing women: patterns of its use in pregnancy and retroactive self-assessment of its efficacy against ‘morning sickness’.

Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice

“A majority of women experience some nausea and/or vomiting during pregnancy. This condition can range from mild nausea to extreme nausea and vomiting, with 1-2% of women suffering from the life-threatening condition hyperemesis gravidarum.

Cannabis (Cannabis sativa) may be used therapeutically to mitigate pregnancy-induced nausea and vomiting.

This paper presents the results of a survey of 84 female users of medicinal cannabis, recruited through two compassion societies in British Columbia, Canada. Of the seventy-nine respondents who had experienced pregnancy, 51 (65%) reported using cannabis during their pregnancies. While 59 (77%) of the respondents who had been pregnant had experienced nausea and/or vomiting of pregnancy, 40 (68%) had used cannabis to treat the condition, and of these respondents, 37 (over 92%) rated cannabis as ‘extremely effective’ or ‘effective.’

Our findings support the need for further investigations into cannabis therapy for severe nausea and vomiting during pregnancy.”

“Marijuana use is common in pregnancy but may not be an independent risk factor for poor neonatal outcomes in term pregnancies.”

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The effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol alone and in combination on damage, inflammation and in vitro motility disturbances in rat colitis

“Cannabis is taken as self-medication by patients with inflammatory bowel disease for symptomatic relief.

Cannabinoid receptor agonists decrease inflammation in animal models of colitis, but their effects on the disturbed motility is not known. (-)-Cannabidiol (CBD) has been shown to interact with Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in behavioural studies, but it remains to be established if these cannabinoids interact in vivo in inflammatory disorders.

Therefore the effects of CBD and THC alone and in combination were investigated in a model of colitis…

In this model of colitis, THC and CBD not only reduced inflammation but also lowered the occurrence of functional disturbances. Moreover the combination of CBD and THC could be beneficial therapeutically, via additive or potentiating effects.

As the two phytocannabinoids modulate the immune system and differ in their pharmacological profile, their combination could be more beneficial than either drug alone. Additionally CBD could not only potentiate the therapeutic effects of THC, but also attenuate some of its undesirable effects…”

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Cannabis Extracts for Treating Cancer

“Cannabis Extract Medicine and Disease. Cannabis extract medicine, also known as “hemp oil” when referring to the type pioneered by Rick Simpson, is a concentrated formulation of cannabis that is ingested orally. By eating large quantities of the oil over a three to six month period, nearly any disease you can imagine can either be cured or completely controlled. This is possible because cannabis medicine works fundamentally through the endocannabinoid system, the superregulatory system of our bodies that maintains homeostasis in the other systems.

You can see the reality of cannabis medicine’s effectiveness in all the things that smoking it is good for. It is widely known and observable that people with cancer, chronic pain, inflammatory conditions, and other conditions smoke cannabis with remarkable efficacy. When you think about that, it’s pretty crazy that setting something on fire and inhaling the resulting smoke (thus getting the cannabinoids in a low-concentration form through the lungs, which are not meant to ingest things) works better than many expensive pharmaceuticals. But with cannabis extract oil, there are two primary differences. First, the cannabinoids are much more concentrated than with smoking, so it has a more powerful effect on your system. Second, the oil is ingested, not smoked, meaning it is digested through the system that is meant to absorb nutrients. Essentially, you are feeding your body the pure molecules that enable it to stay balanced, and since all disease is an imbalance of some kind, this medicine is effective against nearly anything. At least, that’s what the bulk of science and real experience show.

The prohibition of cannabis medicine is a crime against humanity, and as more human trials are conducted into the efficacy of cannabis extracts, the truth will be revealed.

The THC Molecule

Scientific Evidence

There are literally hundreds upon hundreds of scientific studies showing that cannabinoids like tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), as well as whole plant formulations, are effective against nearly any disease you can think of. LetFreedomGrow hosts an incredibly extensive list of peer-reviewed scientific studies and news reports about cannabis medicine. Here are just a few conditions that science has proven cannabinoids are therapeutically active against:

  • Arthritis
  • Cancer
  • Crohn’s
  • Diabetes
  • Fibromyalgia
  • Multiple sclerosis
  • Parkinson’s”


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[Cannabinoids in multiple sclerosis — therapeutically reasonable?].

“For centuries extracts from the Cannabis sativa plant have been used for recreational use and as remedies. Anecdotal reports from patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) experiencing relief of their spasticity and pain after smoking marihuana have prompted discussions about a potential therapeutic application of cannabis preparations in MS.

Only recently the first large, multicenter, double-blind, placebo controlled study was conducted evaluating the use of cannabinoids for treatment of spasticity and other symptoms related to MS.

 Based on this trial and previous uncontrolled observations together with insights from basic research and animal experiments there is reasonable evidence for the therapeutical employment of cannabinoids in the treatment of MS related symptoms.

 Furthermore, data are arising that cannabinoids have immunomodulatory and neuroprotective properties. However, results from clinical trials do not allow the recommendation for the general use of cannabinoids in MS.

This article summarizes the present knowledge of clinical and experimental research regarding the therapeutic potential of cannabinoids for the treatment of MS”

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Endocannabinoids and cannabinoid receptors in ischaemia–reperfusion injury and preconditioning

“This review is aimed to discuss the role of endocannabinoids and CB receptors in various forms of I/R injury (myocardial, cerebral, hepatic and circulatory shock) and preconditioning, and to delineate the evidence supporting the therapeutic utility of selective CB2 receptor agonists, which are devoid of psychoactive effects, as a promising new approach to limit I/R-induced tissue damage.

In this review, we will discuss the triggers and sources of endocannabinoid production during various forms of I/R injury (myocardial, cerebral, hepatic and retinal ischaemia, and circulatory shock) and preconditioning, as well as the diverse role of these novel mediators and their receptors in these processes. We will also overview the accumulating evidence obtained through the use of various synthetic CB1/CB2 receptor ligands, with particular focus on the novel role of CB2 receptors, suggesting that the modulation of the endocannabinoid system can be therapeutically exploited in various forms of I/R injury.

Cerebral I/R (stroke)

The first evidence for the neuroprotective effect of CBs came from the stroke research field from studies using synthetic non-psychotropic CB Dexanabinol/HU-211, which exerted its beneficial effects through CB1/CB2-independent mechanisms.

Collectively, it appears that both CB1 agonists and antagonists may afford neuroprotective effects against cerebral I/R…

There is considerable interest in the development of selective CB2 receptor agonists, which are devoid of psychoactive properties of CB1 agonists, for various inflammatory disorders. Further studies should also establish the therapeutic window of protection during the reperfusion phase with the currently available CB2 receptor agonists, and new compounds should also be designed with better in vivo bioavailability, to devise clinically relevant treatment strategies against various forms of I/R. Nevertheless, the recently observed beneficial effects of CB2 receptor agonists in hepatic and other forms of I/R, coupled with the absence of psychoactive properties, and antifibrotic effects of CB2 receptor in the liver suggest that this approach may represent a novel promising strategy against various forms of I/R injury and other inflammatory disorders.”

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