Effectiveness and Tolerability of THC/CBD Oromucosal Spray for Multiple Sclerosis Spasticity in Italy: First Data from a Large Observational Study.

“The prospective, non-interventional Mobility Improvement (MOVE) 2 study was designed to provide real life data on clinical outcomes of patients with treatment-resistant multiple sclerosis (MS) spasticity receiving routine treatment with tetrahydrocannabinol (THC):cannabidiol (CBD) oromucosal spray (Sativex®), subsequent to its approval in European countries.

In everyday clinical practice in Italy, THC:CBD oromucosal spray provided symptomatic relief of MS spasticity with good tolerability in a relevant number of previously resistant patients.”


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Cannabidiol as potential treatment in refractory pediatric epilepsy.

“In recent years there has been great scientific and public interest focused on the therapeutic potential of compounds derived from cannabis for the treatment of refractory epilepsy in children.

From in vitro and in vivo studies on animal models, cannabidiol (CBD) appears to be a promising anticonvulsant drug with a favorable side-effect profile.

In humans, CBD efficacy and safety is not supported by well designed trials and its use has been described by anecdotal reports.

It will be necessary to investigate CBD safety, pharmacokinetics and interaction with other antiepileptic drugs alongside performing double-blinded placebo-controlled trials in order to obtain conclusive data on its efficacy and safety in children.”



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Cannabidiol-2′,6′-dimethyl ether stimulates body weight gain in apolipoprotein E-deficient BALB/c. KOR/Stm Slc-Apoe(shl) mice.

“The biological activities of cannabidiol (CBD), a major non-psychotropic constituent of the fiber-type cannabis plant, have been examined in detail (e.g., CBD modulation of body weight in mice and rats).

However, few studies have investigated the biological activities of cannabidiol-2′,6′-dimethyl ether (CBDD), a dimethyl ether derivative of the parent CBD.

We herein focused on the effects of CBDD on body weight changes in mice, and demonstrated that it stimulated body weight gain in apolipoprotein E (ApoE)-deficient BALB/c. KOR/Stm Slc-Apoe(shl) mice, especially between 10 and 20 weeks of age.”


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The neuroprotection of cannabidiol against MPP+-induced toxicity in PC12 cells involves trkA receptors, upregulation of axonal and synaptic proteins, neuritogenesis, and might be relevant to Parkinson’s disease.

“Cannabidiol (CBD) is a non-psychoactive constituent of Cannabis sativa with potential to treat neurodegenerative diseases.

Its neuroprotection has been mainly associated with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant events; however, other mechanisms might be involved.

We investigated the involvement of neuritogenesis, NGF receptors (trkA), NGF, and neuronal proteins in the mechanism of neuroprotection of CBD against MPP+ toxicity in PC12 cells…

This is the first study to report the involvement of neuronal proteins and trkA in the neuroprotection of CBD.

Our findings suggest that CBD has a neurorestorative potential independent of NGF that might contribute to its neuroprotection against MPP+, a neurotoxin relevant to Parkinson’s disease.”


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Anti-inflammatory effects of the cannabidiol derivative dimethylheptyl-cannabidiol – studies in BV-2 microglia and encephalitogenic T cells.

“Dimethylheptyl-cannabidiol (DMH-CBD), a non-psychoactive, synthetic derivative of the phytocannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD), has been reported to be anti-inflammatory in RAW macrophages.

Here, we evaluated the effects of DMH-CBD at the transcriptional level in BV-2 microglial cells as well as on the proliferation of encephalitogenic T cells…

The results show that DMH-CBD has similar anti-inflammatory properties to those of CBD.

DMH-CBD downregulates the expression of inflammatory cytokines and protects the microglial cells by inducing an adaptive cellular response against inflammatory stimuli and oxidative injury.”


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[There is evidence for the use of cannabinoids for symptomatic treatment of multiple sclerosis].

“We identified 16 randomized placebo-controlled trials investigating cannabinoids as symptomatic treatment in multiple sclerosis (MS). There is evidence that nabiximols oromucosal spray may reduce subjective symptoms of spasticity and that dronabinol is effective against neuropathic pain in patients with MS.”



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Transdermal cannabidiol reduces inflammation and pain-related behaviours in a rat model of arthritis.

“Current arthritis treatments often have side-effects attributable to active compounds as well as route of administration.

Cannabidiol(CBD) attenuates inflammation and pain without side-effects…

These data indicate that topical CBD application has therapeutic potential for relief of arthritis pain-related behaviours and inflammation without evident side-effects.”


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Cannabidiol protects an in vitro model of the blood brain barrier (BBB) from oxygen-glucose deprivation via PPARγ and 5-HT1A.

“In vivo and in vitro studies have demonstrated a protective effect of cannabidiol (CBD) in reducing infarct size in stroke models, and against epithelial barrier damage in numerous disease models.

We aimed to investigate whether CBD also affects blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability following ischaemia.

These data suggest that activity at the BBB could represent an as yet unrecognised mechanism of CBD-induced neuroprotection in ischaemic stroke, mediated by PPARγ and 5-HT1A .”


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Addressing the stimulant treatment gap: A call to investigate the therapeutic benefits potential of cannabinoids for crack-cocaine use.

“Crack-cocaine use is prevalent in numerous countries, yet concentrated primarily – largely within urban contexts – in the Northern and Southern regions of the Americas. It is associated with a variety of behavioral, physical and mental health and social problems which gravely affect users and their environments. Few evidence-based treatments for crack-cocaine use exist and are available to users in the reality of street drug use. Numerous pharmacological treatments have been investigated but with largely disappointing results.

An important therapeutic potential for crack-cocaine use may rest in cannabinoids, which have recently seen a general resurgence for varied possible therapeutic usages for different neurological diseases.

Distinct potential therapeutic benefits for crack-cocaine use and common related adverse symptoms may come specifically from cannabidiol (CBD) – one of the numerous cannabinoid components found in cannabis – with its demonstrated anxiolytic, anti-psychotic, anti-convulsant effects and potential benefits for sleep and appetite problems.

The possible therapeutic prospects of cannabinoids are corroborated by observational studies from different contexts documenting crack-cocaine users’ ‘self-medication’ efforts towards coping with crack-cocaine-related problems, including withdrawal and craving, impulsivity and paranoia. 

Cannabinoid therapeutics offer further benefits of being available in multiple formulations, are low in adverse risk potential, and may easily be offered in community-based settings which may add to their feasibility as interventions for – predominantly marginalized – crack-cocaine user populations.

Supported by the dearth of current therapeutic options for crack-cocaine use, we are advocating for the implementation of a rigorous research program investigating the potential therapeutic benefits of cannabinoids for crack-cocaine use.

Given the high prevalence of this grave substance use problem in the Americas, opportunities for such research should urgently be created and facilitated there.” 



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A new formulation of cannabidiol in cream shows therapeutic effects in a mouse model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

“The present study was designed to investigate the efficacy of a new formulation of alone, purified cannabidiol (CBD) (>98 %), the main non-psychotropic cannabinoid of Cannabis sativa, as a topical treatment in an experimental model of autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the most commonly used model for multiple sclerosis (MS)…

All these data suggest an interesting new profile of CBD that could lead to its introduction in the clinical management of MS and its associated symptoms at least in association with current conventional therapy.”


“Summarizing, we have shown that the topical administration of CBD can protect against the cascade of events (inflammation, oxidative injury and neuronal cell death) associated to the induction of EAE. Of note, topical CBD application was able to recover the hind limb lost sensitivity. This observation provides a rationale for evaluating its clinical translation that might represent a new concept in the management of MS. Finally, we suggest that CBD, devoid of psychoactive activity, could be potentially, safe and effective non invasive alternatives for alleviating neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration.”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4618347/

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