Anticoagulant effects of a Cannabis extract in an obese rat model.

“Blood coagulation studies were conducted to determine the possible anti-/prothrombotic effect of an organic cannabis extract and the three major cannabinoids, THC, CBD and CBN…

The study thus shows that Cannabis sativa and the cannabinoids, THC and CBN, display anticoagulant activity and may be useful in the treatment of diseases such as type 2 diabetes in which a hypercoagulable state exists.”

 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16644197

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Physiological intestinal oxygen modulates the Caco-2 cell model and increases sensitivity to the phytocannabinoid cannabidiol.

“The Caco-2 cell model is widely used as a model of colon cancer… these cells were more sensitive to cannabidiol-induced antiproliferative actions through changes in cellular energetics…

These effects could impact on its development as an anticancer therapeutic…”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24464350

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Cannabinoid and cannabinoid-like receptors in microglia, astrocytes and astrocytomas

“…compounds targeting cannabinoid-like receptors constitute promising therapeutics to manage neuroinflammation and eradicate malignant astrocytomas.

Importantly, the selective targeting of cannabinoid-like receptors should provide therapeutic relieve without inducing the typical psychotropic effects and possible addictive properties…

 Taken together, the studies outlined in this review suggest that stereotactic injection of high concentrations of CBD could constitute a useful regimen for neurosurgeons to use in the treatment of malignant astrocytomas and of excessive/chronic neuroinflammation.

Such a treatment could provide therapeutic effects both directly, by killing the astrocytoma and limiting its propagation, and indirectly, by reducing the accumulation of activated microglia or invading peripheral immune cells.

The fact that non-psychotropic cannabinoids acting through CB-like receptors affect such fundamental processes involved in microglial cell activation and astrocytoma propagation constitutes, in my opinion, one of the most exciting areas of research in our search for new chemotherapeutic agents to treat malignant brain tumors and new anti-inflammatory agents to temper the damage linked to chronic neuroinflammation.

Furthermore, the curative properties of cannabinoids do not overlap with currently available medicines, and therefore cannabinoid-based treatments constitute a new therapeutic platform.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2919281/

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5-Lipoxygenase and anandamide hydrolase (FAAH) mediate the antitumor activity of cannabidiol, a non-psychoactive cannabinoid.

“It has been recently reported that cannabidiol (CBD), a non-psychoactive cannabinoid, is able to kill glioma cells, both in vivo and in vitro, independently of cannabinoid receptor stimulation.

…the present investigation indicates that CBD exerts its antitumoral effects through modulation of the LOX pathway and of the endocannabinoid system…”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18028339

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Who Benefits Most from THC:CBD Spray? Learning from Clinical Experience.

“In this article, real-life data from clinical practice showing specific aspects relating to use of 9-delta-tetrahydocannabinol and cannabidiol (THC:CBD) oromucosal spray (Sativex®) in patients with moderate to severe spasticity resistant to usual therapy will be presented…

These case reports highlight the diverse nature of the MS spasticity population and they show the possible usefulness of THC:CBD oromucosal spray in individual patients with moderate to severe spasticity resistant to existing therapies…

Perhaps the most important finding is the possibility of obtaining relevant improvements in QoL/ADL (quality of life/activities of daily living) in some patients with resistant MS spasticity, allowing them to engage back in physical and social activities.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24457847

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THC:CBD Spray and MS Spasticity Symptoms: Data from Latest Studies.

“New clinical experience with 9-delta-tetrahydocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) oromucosal spray (Sativex®)…

A randomized, placebo controlled long-term follow-up clinical trial with THC:CBD spray versus placebo demonstrated that it was not associated with cognitive decline, depression or significant mood changes…

THC:CBD oromucosal spray did not adversely influence standard driving ability in patients with moderate to severe MS spasticity…

Findings to date reinforce the efficacy and safety observed in Phase III clinical trials…

Importantly, no additional safety concerns were identified…

Thus, these new data support a positive benefit-risk relationship for THC:CBD oromucosal spray during longer-term use.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24457846

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Nabiximols as an Agonist Replacement Therapy During Cannabis Withdrawal: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

“The cannabis extract nabiximols (Sativex), developed as a multiple sclerosis treatment, offers a potential agonist medication for cannabis withdrawal…

Nabiximols treatment significantly reduced the overall severity of cannabis withdrawal…

The data support further evaluation of nabiximols for management of cannabis dependence and withdrawal in treatment-seeking populations.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24430917

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A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel group study of THC/CBD spray in peripheral neuropathic pain treatment.

“Peripheral neuropathic pain (PNP) associated with allodynia poses a significant clinical challenge. The efficacy of Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinol/cannabidiol (THC/CBD) oromucosal spray, a novel cannabinoid formulation, was investigated in this 15-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel group study…

These findings demonstrate that, in a meaningful proportion of otherwise treatment-resistant patients, clinically important improvements in pain, sleep quality and SGIC of the severity of their condition are obtained with THC/CBD spray. THC/CBD spray was well tolerated and no new safety concerns were identified.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24420962

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Cannabidiol protects liver from binge alcohol-induced steatosis by mechanisms including inhibition of oxidative stress and increasing of autophagy.

“Acute alcohol drinking induces steatosis, and effective prevention of steatosis can protect liver from progressive damage caused by alcohol… We evaluated whether cannabidiol, which has been reported to function as an antioxidant, can protect the liver from alcohol-generated oxidative stress induced steatosis.

Cannabidiol can prevent acute alcohol induced liver steatosis in mice… Importantly, cannabidiol can prevent the decrease of autophagy induced by alcohol.

In conclusion, these results show that cannabidiol protects mouse liver from acute alcohol induced steatosis through multiple mechanisms including attenuation of alcohol-mediated oxidative stress, prevention of JNK MAPK activation, and increasing autophagy.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24398069

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Clinical experience with THC:CBD oromucosal spray in patients with multiple sclerosis-related spasticity.

“This detailed medical charts’ data collection study conducted at an MS clinic in Germany evaluated the effectiveness of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) / cannabidiol (CBD) oromucosal spray in patients with resistant multiple sclerosis (MS) spasticity…

In this routine clinical practice setting at an MS clinic in Germany, THC:CBD spray was effective and well tolerated as add-on therapy or as monotherapy in a relevant proportion of patients with resistant MS spasticity.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24392812

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