A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel group study of THC/CBD spray in peripheral neuropathic pain treatment.

“Peripheral neuropathic pain (PNP) associated with allodynia poses a significant clinical challenge. The efficacy of Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinol/cannabidiol (THC/CBD) oromucosal spray, a novel cannabinoid formulation, was investigated in this 15-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel group study…

These findings demonstrate that, in a meaningful proportion of otherwise treatment-resistant patients, clinically important improvements in pain, sleep quality and SGIC of the severity of their condition are obtained with THC/CBD spray. THC/CBD spray was well tolerated and no new safety concerns were identified.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24420962

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Cannabidiol protects liver from binge alcohol-induced steatosis by mechanisms including inhibition of oxidative stress and increasing of autophagy.

“Acute alcohol drinking induces steatosis, and effective prevention of steatosis can protect liver from progressive damage caused by alcohol… We evaluated whether cannabidiol, which has been reported to function as an antioxidant, can protect the liver from alcohol-generated oxidative stress induced steatosis.

Cannabidiol can prevent acute alcohol induced liver steatosis in mice… Importantly, cannabidiol can prevent the decrease of autophagy induced by alcohol.

In conclusion, these results show that cannabidiol protects mouse liver from acute alcohol induced steatosis through multiple mechanisms including attenuation of alcohol-mediated oxidative stress, prevention of JNK MAPK activation, and increasing autophagy.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24398069

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Clinical experience with THC:CBD oromucosal spray in patients with multiple sclerosis-related spasticity.

“This detailed medical charts’ data collection study conducted at an MS clinic in Germany evaluated the effectiveness of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) / cannabidiol (CBD) oromucosal spray in patients with resistant multiple sclerosis (MS) spasticity…

In this routine clinical practice setting at an MS clinic in Germany, THC:CBD spray was effective and well tolerated as add-on therapy or as monotherapy in a relevant proportion of patients with resistant MS spasticity.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24392812

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Sativex(®) (tetrahydrocannabinol + cannabidiol), an endocannabinoid system modulator: basic features and main clinical data.

“Sativex(®) (nabiximols, USAN name) oromucosal spray contains the two main active constituents of Cannabis sativa, tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol in a 1:1 molecular ratio, and acts as an endocannabinoid system modulator. Randomized, controlled clinical trials of Sativex as add-on therapy provide conclusive evidence of its efficacy in the treatment of more than 1500 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS)-related resistant spasticity…

Sativex oromucosal spray appears to be a useful and welcomed option for the management of resistant spasticity in MS patients. Although the management of MS has been improved by the availability of disease-modifying agents that target the underlying pathophysiological processes of the disease, a clear need remains for more effective symptomatic treatments, especially as regards MS-related spasticity and pain.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21449855

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Endocannabinoid pathways and their role in multiple sclerosis-related muscular dysfunction.

“Modulation of the endocannabinoid system has been shown to have therapeutic potential in a number of disease states.

Sativex(®) (nabiximols, USAN name) contains the two main phytocannabinoids from Cannabis sativa, tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol in a 1:1 ratio, and it acts as an endocannabinoid system modulator.

In an experimental mouse model of MS-related spasticity, Sativex dose-dependently improved hind limb flexion/stiffness and a dosage of 10 mg/kg was shown to be as effective as the most widely established anti-spasticity treatment baclofen (5 mg/kg).

These findings with Sativex are very promising and offer encouragement for MS patients, the majority of whom will develop spasticity-related disabling and recalcitrant symptoms. Furthermore, research into the endocannabinoid system may offer potential in other neurodegenerative, inflammatory and pain disorders.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21449854

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Inhibition of colon carcinogenesis by a standardized Cannabis sativa extract with high content of cannabidiol.

“Colon cancer is a major public health problem. Cannabis-based medicines are useful adjunctive treatments in cancer patients. Here, we have investigated the effect of a standardized Cannabis sativa extract with high content of cannabidiol (CBD), here named CBD BDS, i.e. CBD botanical drug substance, on colorectal cancer cell proliferation and in experimental models of colon cancer in vivo.

RESULTS:

CBD BDS and CBD reduced cell proliferation in tumoral, but not in healthy, cells… In vivo, CBD BDS reduced AOM-induced preneoplastic lesions and polyps as well as tumour growth in the xenograft model of colon cancer.

CONCLUSIONS:

CBD BDS attenuates colon carcinogenesis and inhibits colorectal cancer cell proliferation via CB1 and CB2 receptor activation. The results may have some clinical relevance for the use of Cannabis-based medicines in cancer patients.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24373545

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Effects of intra-prelimbic prefrontal cortex injection of cannabidiol on anxiety-like behavior: Involvement of 5HT1A receptors and previous stressful experience.

“The prelimbic medial prefrontal cortex (PL) is an important encephalic structure involved in the expression of emotional states. In a previous study, intra-PL injection of cannabidiol (CBD), a major non-psychotomimetic cannabinoid present in the Cannabis sativa plant, reduced the expression of fear conditioning response…

CBD caused an anxiolytic, rather than anxiogenic, effect…

Taken together, these results suggest that CBD modulation of anxiety in the PL depend on 5HT1A-mediated neurotransmission and previous stressful experience.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24321837

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Cannabidiol as a potential treatment for psychosis.

“…the cannabis constituent cannabidiol (CBD) may have antipsychotic properties.

This review concisely describes the role of the endocannabinoid system in the development of psychosis and provides an overview of currently available animal, human experimental, imaging, epidemiological and clinical studies that investigated the antipsychotic properties of CBD…

Evidence from several research domains suggests that CBD shows potential for antipsychotic treatment.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24309088

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Advances in the management of multiple sclerosis spasticity: experiences from recent studies and everyday clinical practice.

“Herbal (smoked) cannabis has long been recognized as a possible option for relief of spasticity and neuropathic pain… An innovative method of benefiting from the mode of action of cannabinoids while limiting their drawbacks is to reduce peak plasma levels of 9-delta-tetrahydrocannabinol and counteract psychoactivity with higher than naturally occurring proportions of a second cannabinoid, cannabidiol.

Sativex® oromucosal spray (1:1 ratio of 9-delta-tetrahydrocannabinol/cannabidiol) has recently been approved in a number of EU countries and elsewhere for use in patients with MS-related spasticity who are resistant to treatment with other antispasticity medications.

In clinical trials, Sativex provided initial relief of spasticity symptoms within the first 4 weeks of treatment (trial period) in up to about half of patients resistant to other available oral antispasticity medications and demonstrated clinically significant improvement in spasticity (30% or higher reduction from baseline) in three-quarters of the initial responders. Adverse events were limited mainly to mild or moderate cases of somnolence and dizziness.

Under everyday clinical practice conditions, Sativex at a mean daily dose of <7 sprays/day, was shown to relieve spasticity in about 70% of patients previously resistant to treatment.

Clear improvements were also noted in associated symptoms such as sleep disturbances, bladder problems, loss of mobility and cramps…

Follow-up studies in Sativex responders support continued benefit without the need to increase doses for at least 1 year.

Sativex appears to be a promising solution for a meaningful proportion of patients with MS-related spasticity who have inadequate response to current antispasticity medications.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24289844

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Increase of mesenchymal stem cell migration by Cannabidiol via activation of p42/44 MAPK.

“Migration and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are known to be involved in various regenerative processes such as bone healing.

The present study therefore focussed on cannabinoids which have been demonstrated to exhibit tissue healing properties…

Collectively, this study demonstrates CBD to promote the migration of MSCs via activation of the CB2 receptor and inhibition of GPR55 and to induce osteoblastic differentiation. CBD may therefore recruit MSCs to sites of calcifying tissue regeneration and subsequently support bone regeneration via an osteoanabolic action on MSCs.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24304686

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