A new formulation of cannabidiol in cream shows therapeutic effects in a mouse model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

“The present study was designed to investigate the efficacy of a new formulation of alone, purified cannabidiol (CBD) (>98 %), the main non-psychotropic cannabinoid of Cannabis sativa, as a topical treatment in an experimental model of autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the most commonly used model for multiple sclerosis (MS)…

All these data suggest an interesting new profile of CBD that could lead to its introduction in the clinical management of MS and its associated symptoms at least in association with current conventional therapy.”


“Summarizing, we have shown that the topical administration of CBD can protect against the cascade of events (inflammation, oxidative injury and neuronal cell death) associated to the induction of EAE. Of note, topical CBD application was able to recover the hind limb lost sensitivity. This observation provides a rationale for evaluating its clinical translation that might represent a new concept in the management of MS. Finally, we suggest that CBD, devoid of psychoactive activity, could be potentially, safe and effective non invasive alternatives for alleviating neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration.”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4618347/

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Polypharmacology Shakes Hands with Complex Aetiopathology.

“Chronic diseases are due to deviations of fundamental physiological systems, with different pathologies being characterised by similar malfunctioning biological networks.

The ensuing compensatory mechanisms may weaken the body’s dynamic ability to respond to further insults and reduce the efficacy of conventional single target treatments.

The multitarget, systemic, and prohomeostatic actions emerging for plant cannabinoids exemplify what might be needed for future medicines.

Indeed, two combined cannabis extracts were approved as a single medicine (Sativex®), while pure cannabidiol, a multitarget cannabinoid, is emerging as a treatment for paediatric drug-resistant epilepsy.

Using emerging cannabinoid medicines as an example, we revisit the concept of polypharmacology and describe a new empirical model, the ‘therapeutic handshake’, to predict efficacy/safety of compound combinations of either natural or synthetic origin.”


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Neural correlates of cannabidiol and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol interactions in mice: implications for medical cannabis.

“It has been proposed that medicinal strains of cannabis and therapeutic preparations would be safer with a more balanced concentration ratio of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) to cannabidiol (CBD), as CBD reduces the adverse psychotropic effects of THC.

The aim of this study is to investigate whether CBD modulates THC-induced functional effects and c-Fos expression in a 1:1 dose ratio that approximates therapeutic strains of cannabis and nabiximols.

These data re-affirm that CBD modulates the pharmacological actions of THC and provide information regarding brain regions involved in the interaction between CBD and THC.”


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Cannabidiol and sodium nitroprusside: two novel neuromodulatory pharmacological interventions to treat and prevent psychosis.

“Since most patients with schizophrenia do not respond properly to treatment, scientific effort has been driven to the development of new compounds acting on pharmacological targets beyond the dopaminergic system.

Therefore, the aim is to review basic and clinical research findings from studies evaluating the effects of cannabidiol (CBD), an inhibitor of the reuptake and metabolism of anandamide and several other effects on nervous system, and sodium nitroprusside, a nitric oxide donor, on the prevention and treatment of psychosis.

Animal and human research supports that CBD and sodium nitroprusside might be effective in the prevention and treatment of psychosis in general and especially in schizophrenia.

The evidence available to date shows that CBD and sodium nitroprusside act in pathways associated with psychotic symptoms and that they may be important agents in the management of prodromal psychotic states and psychosis.

This underscores the relevance of further research on the effects of these agents and others that mediate the activity of the cannabinoid system and of nitric oxide, as well as comparative studies of their antipsychotic effects and those of other antipsychotic drugs currently used to treat schizophrenia.”


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Cannabidiol as a Potential Treatment for Anxiety Disorders.

“Cannabidiol (CBD), a Cannabis sativa constituent, is a pharmacologically broad-spectrum drug that in recent years has drawn increasing interest as a treatment for a range of neuropsychiatric disorders.

The purpose of the current review is to determine CBD’s potential as a treatment for anxiety-related disorders, by assessing evidence from preclinical, human experimental, clinical, and epidemiological studies.

We found that existing preclinical evidence strongly supports CBD as a treatment for generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder when administered acutely; however, few studies have investigated chronic CBD dosing.

Likewise, evidence from human studies supports an anxiolytic role of CBD, but is currently limited to acute dosing, also with few studies in clinical populations.

Overall, current evidence indicates CBD has considerable potential as a treatment for multiple anxiety disorders, with need for further study of chronic and therapeutic effects in relevant clinical populations.”


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The stress-regulated protein p8 mediates cannabinoid-induced apoptosis of tumor cells.

“One of the most exciting areas of current research in the cannabinoid field is the study of the potential application of these compounds as antitumoral drugs. Here, we describe the signaling pathway that mediates cannabinoid-induced apoptosis of tumor cells. By using a wide array of experimental approaches, we identify the stress-regulated protein p8 (also designated as candidate of metastasis 1) as an essential mediator of cannabinoid antitumoral action and show that p8 upregulation is dependent on de novo-synthesized ceramide. We also observe that p8 mediates its apoptotic effect via upregulation of the endoplasmic reticulum stress-related genes ATF-4, CHOP, and TRB3. Activation of this pathway may constitute a potential therapeutic strategy for inhibiting tumor growth.”


“Marijuana has been used in medicine for many centuries, and nowadays there is a renaissance in the study of the therapeutic effects of cannabinoids. One of the most active areas of research in the cannabinoid field is the study of the potential antitumoral application of these drugs. Our results unravel the mechanism of cannabinoid antitumoral action by demonstrating the proapoptotic role of the stress protein p8 via its downstream targets ATF-4, CHOP, and TRB3.

The identification of this pathway may contribute to the design of therapeutic strategies for inhibiting tumor growth. In particular, our findings can help to improve the efficiency and selectivity of potential antitumoral therapies with cannabinoids.

Our results also support that cannabinoid treatment does not activate this pathway in nontransformed cells, in line with the belief that cannabinoid proapoptotic action is selective for tumor versus nontumor cells, and that cannabinoids act in a synergic fashion with ER stress inducers as well as with other antitumoral agents.

The identification of the p8-regulated pathway described here may contribute to the design of therapeutic strategies for inhibiting tumor growth. In particular, our findings can help to improve the efficiency and selectivity of a potential cannabinoid-based antitumoral therapy.”


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Medical Marijuana and Chronic Pain: a Review of Basic Science and Clinical Evidence.

“Cannabinoid compounds include phytocannabinoids, endocannabinoids, and synthetics.

The two primary phytocannabinoids are delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), with CB1 receptors in the brain and peripheral tissue and CB2 receptors in the immune and hematopoietic systems.

The route of delivery of cannabis is important as the bioavailability and metabolism are very different for smoking versus oral/sublingual routes.

Gold standard clinical trials are limited; however, some studies have thus far shown evidence to support the use of cannabinoids for some cancer, neuropathic, spasticity, acute pain, and chronic pain conditions.”


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Cannabinoids and Schizophrenia: Risks and Therapeutic Potential.

“The endocannabinoid system has been implicated in psychosis both related and unrelated to cannabis exposure, and studying this system holds potential to increase understanding of the pathophysiology of schizophrenia.

Anandamide signaling in the central nervous system may be particularly important.

Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in cannabis can cause symptoms of schizophrenia when acutely administered, and cannabidiol (CBD), another compound in cannabis, can counter many of these effects.

CBD may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of psychosis following cannabis use, as well as schizophrenia, possibly with better tolerability than current antipsychotic treatments. CBD may also have anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties.

Establishing the role of CBD and other CBD-based compounds in treating psychotic disorders will require further human research.”



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High dosage of cannabidiol (CBD) alleviates pentylenetetrazole-induced epilepsy in rats by exerting an anticonvulsive effect.

“The study was designed to investigate the effect of various concentrations of cannabidiol (CBD) in rats with chronic epilepsy.

The results revealed a significant decrease in the daily average grade of epileptic seizures on treatment with CBD (50 mg/kg).

The neuronal loss and astrocyte hyperplasia in the hippocampal area were also decreased.

CBD treatment did not affect the expression of iNOS in the hippocampus; however, the expression of NR1 was decreased significantly.

Thus, CBD administration inhibited the effect of pentylenetetrazole in rats, decreased the astrocytic hyperplasia, decreased neuronal damage in the hippocampus caused by seizures and selectively reduced the expression of the NR1 subunit of NMDA.

Therefore, CBD exhibits an anticonvulsive effect in the rats with chronic epilepsy.”


“Epilepsy is one of the most common diseases of the brain, affecting at least 50 million people globally… Despite development of a number of new antiepileptic drugs, epilepsy could not be significantly reduced and is a challenge to the clinicians… Many plants, known for their anticonvulsant activity are subjected to phytochemical and pharmacological studies. Cannabidiol (CBD) a constituent of the hemp seed exhibits potent anticonvulsant activity…  The CBD possess anticonvulsive, anti-epileptic, and antimicrobial properties… The present study was performed to examine the anticonvulsive effects of CBD in pentylenetetrazole-induced chronic epilepsy rat models… The present study demonstrates that CBD protects against pentylenetetrazole-induced chronic seizures, decreases astrocytic hyperplasia, decreases neuronal cell loss and selectively suppresses NMDA1 receptor in the hippocampus… Therefore, CBD exhibits an anticonvulsive effect in the rats with chronic epilepsy.”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4537971/

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Marijuana Use in Epilepsy: The Myth and the Reality.

“Marijuana has been utilized as a medicinal plant to treat a variety of conditions for nearly five millennia.

Over the past few years, there has been an unprecedented interest in using cannabis extracts to treat epilepsy, spurred on by a few refractory pediatric cases featured in the media that had an almost miraculous response to cannabidiol-enriched marijuana extracts.

This review attempts to answer the most important questions a clinician may have regarding the use of marijuana in epilepsy. First, we review the preclinical and human evidences for the anticonvulsant properties of the different cannabinoids, mainly tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD).

Then, we explore the safety data from animal and human studies. Lastly, we attempt to reconcile the controversy regarding physicians’ and patients’ opinions about whether the available evidence is sufficient to recommend the use of marijuana to treat epilepsy.”



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