The case for assessing cannabidiol in epilepsy.

“Intractable epilepsies have an extraordinary impact on cognitive and behavioral function and quality of life, and the treatment of seizures represents a challenge and a unique opportunity. Over the past few years, considerable attention has focused on cannabidiol (CBD), the major nonpsychotropic compound of Cannabis sativa.

Basic research studies have provided strong evidence for safety and anticonvulsant properties of CBD. However, the lack of pure, pharmacologically active compounds and legal restrictions have prevented clinical research and confined data on efficacy and safety to anecdotal reports.

Pure CBD appears to be an ideal candidate among phytocannabinoids as a therapy for treatment-resistant epilepsy.

A first step in this direction is to systematically investigate the safety, pharmacokinetics, and interactions of CBD with other antiepileptic drugs and obtain an initial signal regarding efficacy at different dosages. These data can then be used to plan double-blinded placebo-controlled efficacy trials.”

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Cannabidiol: Pharmacology and potential therapeutic role in epilepsy and other neuropsychiatric disorders.

“Cannabis has been used to treat disease since ancient times. Δ9 -Tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9 -THC) is the major psychoactive ingredient and CBD is the major nonpsychoactive ingredient in cannabis.

Cannabis and Δ9 -THC are anticonvulsant in most animal models but can be proconvulsant in some healthy animals. The psychotropic effects of Δ9 -THC limit tolerability.

CBD is anticonvulsant in many acute animal models, but there are limited data in chronic models.

The antiepileptic mechanisms of CBD are not known, but may include effects on the equilibrative nucleoside transporter; the orphan G-protein-coupled receptor GPR55; the transient receptor potential of vanilloid type-1 channel; the 5-HT1a receptor; and the α3 and α1 glycine receptors.

CBD has neuroprotective and antiinflammatory effects, and it appears to be well tolerated in humans, but small and methodologically limited studies of CBD in human epilepsy have been inconclusive.

More recent anecdotal reports of high-ratio CBD:Δ9 -THC medical marijuana have claimed efficacy, but studies were not controlled.

CBD bears investigation in epilepsy and other neuropsychiatric disorders, including anxiety, schizophrenia, addiction, and neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.”

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The case for medical marijuana in epilepsy.

“Charlotte, a little girl with SCN1A-confirmed Dravet syndrome, was recently featured in a special that aired on CNN. Through exhaustive personal research and assistance from a Colorado-based medical marijuana group (Realm of Caring), Charlotte’s mother started adjunctive therapy with a high concentration cannabidiol/Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (CBD:THC) strain of cannabis, now known as Charlotte’s Web. This extract, slowly titrated over weeks and given in conjunction with her existing antiepileptic drug regimen, reduced Charlotte’s seizure frequency from nearly 50 convulsive seizures per day to now 2-3 nocturnal convulsions per month. This effect has persisted for the last 20 months, and Charlotte has been successfully weaned from her other antiepileptic drugs. We briefly review some of the history, preclinical and clinical data, and controversies surrounding the use of medical marijuana for the treatment of epilepsy, and make a case that the desire to isolate and treat with pharmaceutical grade compounds from cannabis (specifically CBD) may be inferior to therapy with whole plant extracts. Much more needs to be learned about the mechanisms of antiepileptic activity of the phytocannabinoids and other constituents of Cannabis sativa.”

“Marijuana stops child’s severe seizures”

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Potential Cure for Epilepsy: Cannabis Vastly Reduces Seizures in Boy with Dravet Syndrome

A judge checks on a marijuana sample during a judging session at Uruguay's second

“Scientists are looking at the potential use of cannabis to treat and potentially cure severe forms of epilepsy.

The medical benefits of medical marijuana for neurological conditions like epilepsy are highly debated.

Examining the potential use of the drug, a series of articles in the journal Epilepsia, a journal of the International League Against Epilepsy, looks at its potential use for treating the syndrome.

Edward Maa, from the Comprehensive Epilepsy Program at Denver Health in Denver, Colorado, looks at a case study of a child with Dravet syndrome – a very severe form of epilepsy.

In the case, a mother provided her child with a strain of medical marijuana high in Cannabidiol (CBD) and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) known as Charlotte’s Web.

When used with the child’s normal drug regime, seizures dropped from 50 convulsions per day to just two or three per month.”


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Toddler’s seizures stopped after consuming cannabis oil, parents say

Two-year-old Kyla Williams hasn‘t learned to walk or talk, her development has stopped as she suffered as many as 200 seizures daily and no medication helped. Now the girl’s family say she hasn’t had a seizure in a week, ever since they began giving her cannabis oil extracted from hemp. (handout from family)

“Two-year-old Kyla Williams hasn’t learned to walk or talk, her development has stopped as she suffered as many as 200 seizures daily and no medication helped. Now the girl’s family says she hasn’t had a seizure in a week, ever since they began giving her cannabis oil extracted from hemp.

The oil being used by the toddler has high amounts of cannabidiol, known as CBD, the main ingredient in medical marijuana, and almost no psychoactive ingredients.”


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Marijuana Effectively Reduces Seizures in Epilepsy Patients


“Medicinal uses of marijuana have been a matter for heated debate for quite some time now. A review by American Academy of neurology collated all available information on marijuana use for brain disease treatment and concluded that except for treating symptoms of multiple sclerosis, there is no hard evidence in favor of medical usage of marijuana.

But now some articles have been published in the journal Epilepsia that contradicts the earlier review. One of these articles is a case study of a family living in Denver, CO. The child in the family suffers from a severe form of epilepsy known as Dravet Syndrome and used to have frequent seizures, as many as 50 convulsions a day. But the child was given “Charlotte’s Web”- a marijuana strain with high levels of cannabidiol (CBD) and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Reportedly, the seizures decreased considerably and now the child suffers from only 2 or 3 seizures each month.

According to the author of the article, Dr. Edward Maa, “As medical professionals it is important that we further the evidence of whether CBD in cannabis is an effective antiepileptic therapy.””

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Study examines potential use of medical marijuana, CBD in treating epilepsy

“…cannabis has been used to treat epilepsy for centuries… The therapeutic potential of medical marijuana and pure cannabidiol (CBD), an active substance in the cannabis plant, for neurologic conditions is highly debated. A series of articles published in Epilepsia, a journal of the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE), examine the potential use of medical marijuana and CBD in treating severe forms of epilepsy…”

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Cannabidiol can improve complex sleep-related behaviours associated with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder in Parkinson’s disease patients: a case series.

“Cannabidiol (CBD) is the main non-psychotropic component of the Cannabis sativa plant. REM sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia characterized by the loss of muscle atonia during REM sleep associated with nightmares and active behaviour during dreaming. We have described the effects of CBD in RBD symptoms in patients with Parkinson’s disease.


Four patients treated with CBD had prompt and substantial reduction in the frequency of RBD-related events without side effects.


This case series indicates that CBD is able to control the symptoms of RBD.”

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Potential effects of cannabidiol as a wake-promoting agent.

“Over the last decades, the scientific interest in chemistry and pharmacology of cannabinoids has increased. Most attention has focused on ∆(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (∆(9)-THC) as it is the psychoactive constituent of Cannabis sativa (C. sativa). However, in previous years, the focus of interest in the second plant constituent with non-psychotropic properties, cannabidiol (CBD) has been enhanced. Recently, several groups have investigated the pharmacological properties of CBD with significant findings; furthermore, this compound has raised promising pharmacological properties as a wake-inducing drug. In the current review, we will provide experimental evidence regarding the potential role of CBD as a wake-inducing drug.”

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Prevention of Alzheimer’s Could Hinge on Marijuana Science

Alzheimers Disease includes reduced brain activity and function (red areas above), the result of years of accumulated damage. Molecules in pot seem to prevent this damage.

“The British Journal of Pharmacologyhas published a paper that concludes that the ingredients in marijuana likely work to prevent the onset of Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, and age-related dementia.

Smoking, vaping, or eating the pot molecules THC and CBD directly effects nerve cell function, resulting in reduced chronic brain inflammation, reduced oxidative stress, and reduced cellular dysfunction — all the while promoting stability of the human body’s internal environment (homeostasis) and healthy brain cells (neurotrophic support)…

Pot likely prevents Alzheimer’s and other neurodegenerative diseases at the individual cell level. Molecules in pot like THC and CBD (called cannabinoids) plug into a primal, chemical signaling system in cells called “the endocannabinoid system.” Cannabinoids dampen inflammation, protect cells from oxidative damage, and promote cell health on a number of levels, the paper shows.

Manipulating the endocannabinoid system will likely be a key to preventing or curing a bunch of neurodegenerative disorders, the paper concludes.”

“Prevention of Alzheimer’s Disease Pathology by Cannabinoids: Neuroprotection Mediated by Blockade of Microglial Activation”

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