Effects of intra-prelimbic prefrontal cortex injection of cannabidiol on anxiety-like behavior: Involvement of 5HT1A receptors and previous stressful experience.

“The prelimbic medial prefrontal cortex (PL) is an important encephalic structure involved in the expression of emotional states. In a previous study, intra-PL injection of cannabidiol (CBD), a major non-psychotomimetic cannabinoid present in the Cannabis sativa plant, reduced the expression of fear conditioning response…

CBD caused an anxiolytic, rather than anxiogenic, effect…

Taken together, these results suggest that CBD modulation of anxiety in the PL depend on 5HT1A-mediated neurotransmission and previous stressful experience.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24321837

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Cannabidiol as a potential treatment for psychosis.

“…the cannabis constituent cannabidiol (CBD) may have antipsychotic properties.

This review concisely describes the role of the endocannabinoid system in the development of psychosis and provides an overview of currently available animal, human experimental, imaging, epidemiological and clinical studies that investigated the antipsychotic properties of CBD…

Evidence from several research domains suggests that CBD shows potential for antipsychotic treatment.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24309088

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Advances in the management of multiple sclerosis spasticity: experiences from recent studies and everyday clinical practice.

“Herbal (smoked) cannabis has long been recognized as a possible option for relief of spasticity and neuropathic pain… An innovative method of benefiting from the mode of action of cannabinoids while limiting their drawbacks is to reduce peak plasma levels of 9-delta-tetrahydrocannabinol and counteract psychoactivity with higher than naturally occurring proportions of a second cannabinoid, cannabidiol.

Sativex® oromucosal spray (1:1 ratio of 9-delta-tetrahydrocannabinol/cannabidiol) has recently been approved in a number of EU countries and elsewhere for use in patients with MS-related spasticity who are resistant to treatment with other antispasticity medications.

In clinical trials, Sativex provided initial relief of spasticity symptoms within the first 4 weeks of treatment (trial period) in up to about half of patients resistant to other available oral antispasticity medications and demonstrated clinically significant improvement in spasticity (30% or higher reduction from baseline) in three-quarters of the initial responders. Adverse events were limited mainly to mild or moderate cases of somnolence and dizziness.

Under everyday clinical practice conditions, Sativex at a mean daily dose of <7 sprays/day, was shown to relieve spasticity in about 70% of patients previously resistant to treatment.

Clear improvements were also noted in associated symptoms such as sleep disturbances, bladder problems, loss of mobility and cramps…

Follow-up studies in Sativex responders support continued benefit without the need to increase doses for at least 1 year.

Sativex appears to be a promising solution for a meaningful proportion of patients with MS-related spasticity who have inadequate response to current antispasticity medications.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24289844

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Increase of mesenchymal stem cell migration by Cannabidiol via activation of p42/44 MAPK.

“Migration and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are known to be involved in various regenerative processes such as bone healing.

The present study therefore focussed on cannabinoids which have been demonstrated to exhibit tissue healing properties…

Collectively, this study demonstrates CBD to promote the migration of MSCs via activation of the CB2 receptor and inhibition of GPR55 and to induce osteoblastic differentiation. CBD may therefore recruit MSCs to sites of calcifying tissue regeneration and subsequently support bone regeneration via an osteoanabolic action on MSCs.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24304686

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Direct modulation of the outer mitochondrial membrane channel, voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1) by cannabidiol: a novel mechanism for cannabinoid-induced cell death.

“Cannabidiol (CBD) is a non-psychoactive plant cannabinoid that inhibits cell proliferation and induces cell death of cancer cells and activated immune cells. It is not an agonist of the classical CB1/CB2 cannabinoid receptors and the mechanism by which it functions is unknown.

…using microscale thermophoresis, we showed a direct interaction between purified fluorescently labeled VDAC1 and CBD.

Thus, VDAC1 seems to serve as a novel mitochondrial target for CBD.

The inhibition of VDAC1 by CBD may be responsible for the immunosuppressive and anticancer effects of CBD.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24309936

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Marijuana & Brain Cancer: Why CBD Beats Gliomas

“A non-psychoactive chemical found in marijuana called cannabidiol (CBD) could offer an effective treatment for brain cancer and is potentially an effective anti-cancer drug in the management of gliomas, without side effects, according to a new study from a team of Investigators in Spain, Italy and Canada.

The results suggest that CBD helps battle brain cancer through a combination of anti-cancer effects at the molecular level.”

More: http://blog.sfgate.com/smellthetruth/2013/12/05/marijuana-brain-cancer-why-cbd-beats-gliomas/

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Non-Hallucinogenic Cannabinoids Are Effective Anti-Cancer Drugs – ScienceDaily

“New research has shown that the non-hallucinogenic components of cannabis could act as effective anti-cancer agents.

The anti-cancer properties of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the primary hallucinogenic component of cannabis, has been recognised for many years, but research into similar cannabis-derived compounds, known as cannabinoids, has been limited.

The study was carried out by a team at St George’s, University of London. It has been published in the journal Anticancer Research.

The team, led by Dr Wai Liu and colleagues carried out laboratory investigations using a number of cannabinoids, either alone or in combination with each other, to measure their anti-cancer actions in relation to leukemia.

Of six cannabinoids studied, each demonstrated anti-cancer properties as effective as those seen in THC. Importantly, they had an increased effect on cancer cells when combined with each other.”

More: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/10/131014094105.htm

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New research shows marijuana compounds do fight cancer

The bracts surrounding a cluster of Cannabis sativa flowers are coated with cannabinoid-laden trichomes. (Photo: Wikimedia Commons)

“Debate is just beginning in Washington over how medical marijuana will be grown and distributed now that the rules for the recreational market are established. Meanwhile, research into medical benefits of compounds within the cannabis plant continues to show effectiveness.

Effectiveness against pain in its many forms and other side effects of major diseases – or the palliative side of marijuana use – have been pretty well established, but can marijuana directly take on a disease as big, scary and deadly as cancer?

“What we’ve shown using just a few of these (cannabis) compounds is that the effects against cancer are really profound. They really are,” said Dr. Wai Liu, a senior research fellow at St George’s University of London.

Anticancer success

Quick note: Cannabinoids are the chemicals in marijuana that have effects in the body, some have psychoactive (or make you high) effects such as THC, and others such as CBD don’t have psychoactive effects but do interact with the body’s “cannabinoid receptors.” There are more than 85 “cannabinoids” in marijuana.

Liu’s most recent published research “explored the activity of six cannabinoids, used both alone and in combination in leukaemic cells.” The research was published in Anticancer Research: International Journal of Cancer Research and Treatment.

He said the anticancer activity of THC has been “known for sometime” but that THC’s psychoactive effect or tendency to get you high limits its use as a cancer-fighting agent. That’s partly due to the negative social stigma about getting high and, of course, not everyone wants to experience a high.

So, he set out to explore the cancer fighting ability of other cannabinoids that don’t get you high.

“We have shown that these six other agents that lack psychoactivity are also just as effective as an anti-cancer agent,” he said. Chief among the six was cannabidiol or CBD.”

More: http://blog.seattlepi.com/marijuana/2013/10/22/new-research-shows-marijuana-compounds-do-fight-cancer/

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Cannabidiol in Humans-The Quest for Therapeutic Targets.

“Cannabidiol (CBD), a major phytocannabinoid constituent of cannabis, is attracting growing attention in medicine for its anxiolytic, antipsychotic, antiemetic and anti-inflammatory properties.

However, up to this point, a comprehensive literature review of the effects of CBD in humans is lacking. The aim of the present systematic review is to examine the randomized and crossover studies that administered CBD to healthy controls and to clinical patients.

 A systematic search was performed in the electronic databases PubMed and EMBASE using the key word “cannabidiol”. Both monotherapy and combination studies (e.g., CBD + ∆9-THC) were included. A total of 34 studies were identified: 16 of these were experimental studies, conducted in healthy subjects, and 18 were conducted in clinical populations, including multiple sclerosis (six studies), schizophrenia and bipolar mania (four studies), social anxiety disorder (two studies), neuropathic and cancer pain (two studies), cancer anorexia (one study), Huntington’s disease (one study), insomnia (one study), and epilepsy (one study).

Experimental studies indicate that a high-dose of inhaled/intravenous CBD is required to inhibit the effects of a lower dose of ∆9-THC. Moreover, some experimental and clinical studies suggest that oral/oromucosal CBD may prolong and/or intensify ∆9-THC-induced effects, whereas others suggest that it may inhibit ∆9-THC-induced effects.

 Finally, preliminary clinical trials suggest that high-dose oral CBD  may exert a therapeutic effect for social anxiety disorder, insomnia and epilepsy, but also that it may cause mental sedation. Potential pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic explanations for these results are discussed.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24281562

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Cannabidiol, a Non-Psychoactive Cannabinoid Compound, Inhibits Proliferation and Invasion in U87-MG and T98G Glioma Cells through a Multitarget Effect.

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“…the non-psychoactive cannabinoid compound cannabidiol (CBD) effectively limits human glioma cell growth, both in vitro and in vivo… the present investigation confirms the antiproliferative and antiinvasive effects of CBD in U87-MG cells.

 More interestingly, these effects can also be extended to T98G glioma cells, a well known Δ9-THC-resistant lineage…

Taken together, these results provide new insights into the antitumor action of CBD, showing that this cannabinoid affects multiple tumoral features and molecular pathways.

 As CBD is a non-psychoactive phytocannabinoid that appears to be devoid of side effects, our results support its exploitation as an effective anti-cancer drug in the management of gliomas.”

 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24204703

Full-text: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3804588/

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