Nabiximols for the Treatment of Cannabis Dependence: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

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“This study demonstrates that cannabinoid agonist treatment, in this case using nabiximols, in combination with psychosocial interventions is a safe approach for reducing cannabis use among individuals with cannabis dependence who are seeking treatment.”   https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31305874
https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamainternalmedicine/fullarticle/2737918
“nabiximols: An herbal preparation containing a defined quantity of specific cannabinoids formulated for oromucosal spray administration with potential analgesic activity. Nabiximols contains a standardized extract of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the non-psychoactive cannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD), other minor cannabinoids, flavonoids, and terpenes from two cannabis plant varieties.” https://www.cancer.gov/publications/dictionaries/cancer-drug/def/nabiximols
“Cannabis treatment counters addiction: First study of its kind. Trial shows cannabis replacement therapy can be effective” https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/07/190715114247.htm

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Safety and efficacy of nabiximols on spasticity symptoms in patients with motor neuron disease (CANALS): a multicentre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial.

The Lancet Neurology

“Spasticity is a major determinant of disability and decline in quality of life in patients with motor neuron disease.

Cannabinoids have been approved for symptomatic treatment of spasticity in multiple sclerosis. We investigated whether cannabinoids might also reduce spasticity in patients with motor neuron disease.

Nabiximols was well tolerated, and no participants withdrew from the double-blind phase of the study. No serious adverse effects occurred.

INTERPRETATION:

In this proof-of-concept trial, nabiximols had a positive effect on spasticity symptoms in patients with motor neuron disease and had an acceptable safety and tolerability profile.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30554828

https://www.thelancet.com/journals/laneur/article/PIIS1474-4422(18)30406-X/fulltext

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Results of a Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study of Nabiximols Oromucosal Spray as Adjunctive Therapy in Advanced Cancer Patients With Chronic Uncontrolled Pain.

Journal of Pain and Symptom Management Home

“Prior phase 2/3 studies found that cannabinoids might provide adjunctive analgesia in advanced cancer patients with uncontrolled pain.

To assess adjunctive nabiximols (Sativex®), an extract of Cannabis sativa containing two potentially therapeutic cannabinoids (Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol, in advanced cancer patients with chronic pain unalleviated by optimized opioid therapy.

Nabiximols was statistically superior to placebo on two of three quality-of-life instruments at week 3 and on all three at week 5.

The safety profile of nabiximols was consistent with earlier studies.

Although not superior to placebo on the primary efficacy endpoint, nabiximols had benefits on multiple secondary endpoints, particularly in US patients.

Nabiximols might have utility in patients with advanced cancer who receive a lower opioid dose, such as individuals with early intolerance to opioid therapy.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28923526

http://www.jpsmjournal.com/article/S0885-3924(17)30465-7/fulltext

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Refractory trigeminal neuralgia responsive to nabiximols in a patient with multiple sclerosis.

“Nabiximols is a cannabinoid compound approved for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS)-related spasticity.

However, additional symptoms, such as pain, urinary urgency and sleep disturbance, may benefit from treatment.

CASE REPORT:

The present report describes a patient with secondary progressive MS and severe lower limbs spasticity who was started on treatment with nabiximols. The patient also suffered from trigeminal neuralgia, which he was not treating due to inefficacy or side effects of all previously tried medications. After nabiximols initiation the patient experienced a marked benefit on trigeminal neuralgia, which completely resolved, while spasticity responded only partially to treatment.

CONCLUSION:

Nabiximols mechanism of action is based on the interaction with CB1 and CB2 receptors, which are expressed by central nervous system neurons and are known to modulate pain among other effects. The present case indicates that nabiximols and other cannabinoids need to be further tested for the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27456876

“Therapeutic potential of cannabinoids in trigeminal neuralgia. Considering the pronounced antinociceptive effects produced by cannabinoids, they may be a promising therapeutic approach for the clinical management of trigeminal neuralgia.”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15578967

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Nabiximols (THC/CBD Oromucosal Spray, Sativex®) in Clinical Practice – Results of a Multicenter, Non-Interventional Study (MOVE 2) in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis Spasticity.

“Nabiximols (Sativex®), a cannabinoid-based oromucosal spray, is an add-on therapy for patients with moderate to severe multiple sclerosis spasticity (MSS) resistant to other medications. The primary objective was to provide real-life observational data of clinical experience of nabiximols in contrast to formal clinical trials of effectiveness…

Conclusion: Real-life data confirm nabiximols as an effective and well-tolerated treatment option for resistant MSS in clinical practice.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24525548

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Nabiximols as an Agonist Replacement Therapy During Cannabis Withdrawal: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

“The cannabis extract nabiximols (Sativex), developed as a multiple sclerosis treatment, offers a potential agonist medication for cannabis withdrawal…

Nabiximols treatment significantly reduced the overall severity of cannabis withdrawal…

The data support further evaluation of nabiximols for management of cannabis dependence and withdrawal in treatment-seeking populations.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24430917

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Sativex(®) (tetrahydrocannabinol + cannabidiol), an endocannabinoid system modulator: basic features and main clinical data.

“Sativex(®) (nabiximols, USAN name) oromucosal spray contains the two main active constituents of Cannabis sativa, tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol in a 1:1 molecular ratio, and acts as an endocannabinoid system modulator. Randomized, controlled clinical trials of Sativex as add-on therapy provide conclusive evidence of its efficacy in the treatment of more than 1500 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS)-related resistant spasticity…

Sativex oromucosal spray appears to be a useful and welcomed option for the management of resistant spasticity in MS patients. Although the management of MS has been improved by the availability of disease-modifying agents that target the underlying pathophysiological processes of the disease, a clear need remains for more effective symptomatic treatments, especially as regards MS-related spasticity and pain.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21449855

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Endocannabinoid pathways and their role in multiple sclerosis-related muscular dysfunction.

“Modulation of the endocannabinoid system has been shown to have therapeutic potential in a number of disease states.

Sativex(®) (nabiximols, USAN name) contains the two main phytocannabinoids from Cannabis sativa, tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol in a 1:1 ratio, and it acts as an endocannabinoid system modulator.

In an experimental mouse model of MS-related spasticity, Sativex dose-dependently improved hind limb flexion/stiffness and a dosage of 10 mg/kg was shown to be as effective as the most widely established anti-spasticity treatment baclofen (5 mg/kg).

These findings with Sativex are very promising and offer encouragement for MS patients, the majority of whom will develop spasticity-related disabling and recalcitrant symptoms. Furthermore, research into the endocannabinoid system may offer potential in other neurodegenerative, inflammatory and pain disorders.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21449854

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Symptomatic therapy in multiple sclerosis: the role of cannabinoids in treating spasticity

“Anecdotal evidence suggests a beneficial effect of cannabis on spasticity as well as pain. Recently, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies have confirmed the clinical efficacy of cannabinoids for the treatment of spasticity in patients with MS. Based on these data, nabiximols (Sativex), a 1:1 mix of Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol extracted from cloned Cannabis sativa chemovars, received approval for treating MS-related spasticity in various countries around the globe. In this article we review the current understanding of cannabinoid biology and the value of cannabinoids as a symptomatic treatment option addressing spasticity in patients with MS.

Based on individual case reports, the consumption of plant parts, specifically, the resin of the Cannabis sativa hemp plant, has, for years, been attributed to the capacity to reduce the symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS), such as spasticity, neuropathic pain, tremor, and disturbed bladder function. As characterization of the endocannabinoid system and its role in the motor system and pain processing continue to advance, there is increasing evidence of a scientific basis for the postulated therapeutic effect of cannabis derivatives.

The oromucosal administration of THC and CBD in a 1:1 ratio has proven to be a well tolerated therapeutic option for treating spasticity in patients with MS who respond poorly to conventional antispastic drugs. Assessment of the efficacy is limited by the fact that spasticity as a symptom is very difficult to measure reliably, objectively, and validly. Current study data support the position that the beneficial effects of nabiximols on subjective and objective endpoints in a selected patient sample outweigh the adverse pharmaceutical effects. The effects of long-term nabiximols treatment on neuropsychological processes and the structure of the endocannabinoid system need to be further characterized.”

Full text: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3437528/

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Nabiximols for opioid-treated cancer patients with poorly-controlled chronic pain: a randomized, placebo-controlled, graded-dose trial.

 “Patients with advanced cancer who have pain that responds poorly to opioid therapy pose a clinical challenge. Nabiximols (Nabiximols is the U.S. Adopted Name [USAN] for Sativex [GW Pharma Ltd, Wiltshire, U.K.], which does not yet have an INN), a novel cannabinoid formulation, is undergoing investigation as add-on therapy…

This study supports the efficacy and safety of nabiximols at the 2 lower-dose levels and provides important dose information for future trials.

 PERSPECTIVE: Nabiximols, a novel cannabinoid formulation, may be a useful add-on analgesic for patients with opioid-refractory cancer pain. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, graded-dose study demonstrated efficacy and safety at low and medium doses.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22483680

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