The endocannabinoid system: a putative role in neurodegenerative diseases.

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“Scientific evidence shows that an hypofunction or a dysregulation of the endocannabinoid system may be responsible for some of the symptoms of diseases such as multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Huntington’s, Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases.

The aim of this review is to highlight the role of endocannabinoid system in neurodegenerative diseases

Scientific evidence shows that cannabis can provide symptomatic relief in several neurodegenerative diseases such as multiple sclerosis, Huntington’s, Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. These findings imply that a hypofunction or a dysregulation of the endocannabinoid system may be responsible for some of the symptoms of these diseases. Moreover, given the abundance of CB1 receptors in areas associated with movement and executive thought, researchers’ interest has often focused on endocannabinoid levels in patients with motor degenerative disorders.

CONCLUSIONS:

The important role played by endocannabinoid system promises interesting developments, in particular to evaluate the effectiveness of new drugs in both psychiatry and neurology.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4070159/

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Therapeutic potential of cannabinoid medicines.

“Cannabis was extensively used as a medicine throughout the developed world in the nineteenth century but went into decline early in the twentieth century ahead of its emergence as the most widely used illicit recreational drug later that century. Recent advances in cannabinoid pharmacology alongside the discovery of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) have re-ignited interest in cannabis-based medicines.

The ECS has emerged as an important physiological system and plausible target for new medicines. Its receptors and endogenous ligands play a vital modulatory role in diverse functions including immune response, food intake, cognition, emotion, perception, behavioural reinforcement, motor co-ordination, body temperature, wake/sleep cycle, bone formation and resorption, and various aspects of hormonal control. In disease it may act as part of the physiological response or as a component of the underlying pathology.

In the forefront of clinical research are the cannabinoids delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol, and their contrasting pharmacology will be briefly outlined. The therapeutic potential and possible risks of drugs that inhibit the ECS will also be considered. This paper will then go on to review clinical research exploring the potential of cannabinoid medicines in the following indications: symptomatic relief in multiple sclerosis, chronic neuropathic pain, intractable nausea and vomiting, loss of appetite and weight in the context of cancer or AIDS, psychosis, epilepsy, addiction, and metabolic disorders.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24006213

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[Marihuana and cannobinoids as medicaments].

“Biological activity of cannabinoids is caused by binding to two cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2. Psychoactive is not only tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) but also: cannabidiol, cannabigerol or cannabichromen.

Formerly, the usefulness of hemp was assessed in the relation to temporary appeasement of the symptoms of some ailments as nausea or vomiting.

Present discoveries indicates that cannabis-based drugs has shown ability to alleviate of autoimmunological disorders such as: Multiple sclerosis (MS), Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or inflammatory bowel disease.

Another studies indicates that cannabinoids play role in treatment of neurological disorders like Alzheimer disease or Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) or even can reduce spreading of tumor cells.

Cannabinoids stand out high safety profile considering acute toxicity, it is low possibility of deadly overdosing and side-effects are comprise in range of tolerated side-effects of other medications.

In some countries marinol and nabilone are used as anti vomiting and nausea drug. First cannabis-based drug containg naturally occurring cannabinoids is Sativex. Sativex is delivered in an mucosal spray for patients suffering from spasticity in MS, pain relevant with cancer and neuropathic pain of various origin.

Cannabis side-effects varies and depend from several factors like administrated dose, rout of administration and present state of mind. After sudden break from long-lasting use, withdrawal symptoms can appear, although they entirely disappear after a week or two.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23421098

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Activation of cannabinoid receptor 2 attenuates leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions and blood-brain barrier dysfunction under inflammatory conditions.

“Previous studies have shown that modulation of the receptor-mediated cannabinoid system during neuroinflammation can produce potent neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects

…Together, these results suggest that pharmacological CB2R ligands offer a new strategy for BBB protection during neuroinflammation.”

Full text: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3325902/

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The endocannabinoid system and its therapeutic exploitation.

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“The term ‘endocannabinoid’ – originally coined in the mid-1990s after the discovery of membrane receptors for the psychoactive principle in Cannabis, Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and their endogenous ligands – now indicates a whole signalling system that comprises cannabinoid receptors, endogenous ligands and enzymes for ligand biosynthesis and inactivation.

This system seems to be involved in an ever-increasing number of pathological conditions.

With novel products already being aimed at the pharmaceutical market little more than a decade since the discovery of cannabinoid receptors, the endocannabinoid system seems to hold even more promise for the future development of therapeutic drugs.

We explore the conditions under which the potential of targeting the endocannabinoid system might be realized in the years to come.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15340387

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Cannabinoids and Cannabis Cure: the healing abilities of cannabinoids found in medical cannabis

“Cannabinoids and Cannabis Cure: Documentary”

marijuana cannabis research doctors cannabinoids

“Cannabis and cannabinoids documentary video that shows several aspects of the healing abilities of medical cannabis and the endocannabinoid system.

Several medical marijuana videos together to provide over an hour of information on cannabinoids and their many functions in human health and medicine.”

http://www.knowmarijuana.com/2013/02/28/cannabis-cannabinoids-cure/

Video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Xh2qd_foV-4

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[Marihuana and cannabinoids as medicaments].

“Biological activity of cannabinoids is caused by binding to two cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2. Psychoactive is not only tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) but also: cannabidiol, cannabigerol or cannabichromen. Formerly, the usefulness of hemp was assessed in the relation to temporary appeasement of the symptoms of some ailments as nausea or vomiting.

 Present discoveries indicates that cannabis-based drugs has shown ability to alleviate of autoimmunological disorders such as: Multiple sclerosis (MS), Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or inflammatory bowel disease. Another studies indicates that cannabinoids play role in treatment of neurological disorders like Alzheimer disease or Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) or even can reduce spreading of tumor cells.

 Cannabinoids stand out high safety profile considering acute toxicity, it is low possibility of deadly overdosing and side-effects are comprise in range of tolerated side-effects of other medications.

In some countries marinol and nabilone are used as anti vomiting and nausea drug. First cannabis-based drug containg naturally occurring cannabinoids is Sativex. Sativex is delivered in an mucosal spray for patients suffering from spasticity in MS, pain relevant with cancer and neuropathic pain of various origin. Despite the relatively low acute toxicity of cannabinoids they should be avoid in patients with psychotic disorders, pregnant or breastfeeding woman. Cannabinoids prolong a time of reaction and decrease power of concentration that’s why driving any vehicles is forbidden.

 Cannabis side-effects varies and depend from several factors like administrated dose, rout of administration and present state of mind. After sudden break from long-lasting use, withdrawal symptoms can appear, although they entirely disappear after a week or two.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23421098

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Medical cannabis relieves sufferers of chronic ailments

“Treatment can improve appetite, ease chronic pain, and more, say TAU researchers. Though controversial, medical cannabis has been gaining ground as a valid therapy, offering relief to suffers of diseases such as cancer, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, ALS and more. The substance is known to soothe severe pain, increase the appetite, and ease insomnia where other common medications fail.”

More: http://www.virtualmedicalcentre.com/news/medical-cannabis-relieves-sufferers-of-chronic-ailments/18330

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Medical Cannabis Provides Dramatic Relief for Sufferers of Chronic Ailments, Israeli Study Finds

“Though controversial, medical cannabis has been gaining ground as a valid therapy, offering relief to suffers of diseases such as cancer, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, ALS and more. The substance is known to soothe severe pain, increase the appetite, and ease insomnia where other common medications fail.”

 

“Overall, Klein believes that the healing powers of cannabis are close to miraculous, and has long supported an overhaul in governmental policy…”

Read more: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/01/130124123453.htm

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Modulation of The Balance Between Cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 Receptor Activation During Cerebral Ischemic/Reperfusion Injury

“A number of investigations have shown that CB2 receptor activation has anti-inflammatory therapeutic potential in various CNS diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, traumatic brain injury and Alzheimer’s disease. Because inflammatory responses have been shown to be important contributors to secondary injury following cerebral ischemia; the CB2 receptor has been investigated as a potential therapeutic target in stroke…

The most striking changes were obtained by combing a CB1 antagonist with a CB2 agonist. This combination elevated the cerebral blood flow during ischemia and reduced infarction by 75%…during cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury, inhibition of CB1 receptor activation is protective while inhibition of CB2 receptor activation is detrimental.

 The greatest degree of neuroprotection was obtained by combining an inhibitor of CB1 activation with an exogenous CB2 agonist.

In conclusion, the results of this investigation demonstrate dynamic changes in the expression of CB1 and CB2 receptors during cerebral ischemic/reperfusion injury in mice. The effects of stimulation of these receptors on damage ischemia/reperfusion injury differed dramatically. Stimulation of the CB2 receptor was found to be neuroprotective, while inhibition of the CB1 receptor was also protective,too. The combination of a CB2 agonist and a CB1 antagonist provided the greatest degree of protection and indicated a synergistic effect derived from combining these agents. Therefore, changing the balance of stimulation of these receptors by endogenous cannabinoids may provide an important therapeutic strategy during stroke.”

Full text: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2577828/

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