Prevention of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm Formation on Soft Contact Lenses by Allium sativum Fermented Extract (BGE) and Cannabinol Oil Extract (CBD)

antibiotics-logo “Two natural mixtures, Allium sativum fermented extract (BGE) and cannabinol oil extract (CBD), were assessed for their ability to inhibit and remove Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms on soft contact lenses in comparison to a multipurpose Soft Contact Lens-care solution present on the Italian market.

The study showed that BGE and CBD have good effect on inhibition of biofilm formation and removal of preformed biofilms, which makes them promising agents that could be exploited to develop more effective care solutions.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31835470

https://www.mdpi.com/2079-6382/8/4/258

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Cannabinoids and Opioids in the Treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases.

Image result for clinical and translational gastroenterology“In traditional medicine, Cannabis sativa has been prescribed for a variety of diseases. Today, the plant is largely known for its recreational purpose, but it may find a way back to what it was originally known for: a herbal remedy. Most of the plant’s ingredients, such as Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol, cannabigerol, and others, have demonstrated beneficial effects in preclinical models of intestinal inflammation. Endogenous cannabinoids (endocannabinoids) have shown a regulatory role in inflammation and mucosal permeability of the gastrointestinal tract where they likely interact with the gut microbiome. Anecdotal reports suggest that in humans, Cannabis exerts antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, and antidiarrheal properties. Despite these reports, strong evidence on beneficial effects of Cannabis in human gastrointestinal diseases is lacking. Clinical trials with Cannabis in patients suffering from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have shown improvement in quality of life but failed to provide evidence for a reduction of inflammation markers. Within the endogenous opioid system, mu opioid receptors may be involved in anti-inflammation of the gut. Opioids are frequently used to treat abdominal pain in IBD; however, heavy opioid use in IBD is associated with opioid dependency and higher mortality. This review highlights latest advances in the potential treatment of IBD using Cannabis/cannabinoids or opioids.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31899693

https://journals.lww.com/ctg/Abstract/latest/Cannabinoids_and_Opioids_in_the_Treatment_of.99898.aspx

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[Cannabidiol in cancer treatment].

Image result for springer link journals“Cannabis was used for cancer patients as early as about 2500 years ago.

Experimental studies demonstrated tumor-inhibiting activities of various cannabinoids more than 40 years ago.

In view of the status of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) as a regulated substance, non-psychotomimetic cannabidiol (CBD) is of particular importance.

RESULTS:

Preclinical studies, particularly recent ones, including numerous animal models of tumors, unanimously suggest the therapeutic efficacy of CBD. In isolated combination studies, synergistic effects were generally observed. In addition, CBD may potentially play a role in the palliative care of patients, especially concerning symptoms such as pain, insomnia, anxiety, and depression. Further human studies are warranted.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31897700

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00482-019-00438-9

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Effect of combined doses of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol or tetrahydrocannabinolic acid and cannabidiolic acid on acute nausea in male Sprague-Dawley rats.

 “This study evaluated the potential of combined cannabis constituents to reduce nausea.

CONCLUSION:

Combinations of very low doses of CBD + THC or CBDA + THCA robustly reduce LiCl-induced conditioned gaping. Clinical trials are necessary to determine the efficacy of using single or combined cannabinoids as adjunct treatments with existing anti-emetic regimens to manage chemotherapy-induced nausea.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31897571

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00213-019-05428-4

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Cannabis for Pediatric Epilepsy.

 Related image“Epilepsy is a chronic disease characterized by recurrent unprovoked seizures. Up to 30% of children with epilepsy will be refractory to standard anticonvulsant therapy, and those with epileptic encephalopathy can be particularly challenging to treat.

The endocannabinoid system can modulate the physiologic processes underlying epileptogenesis. The anticonvulsant properties of several cannabinoids, namely Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol (CBD), have been demonstrated in both in vitro and in vivo studies.

Cannabis-based therapies have been used for millennia to treat a variety of diseases including epilepsy. Several studies have shown that CBD, both in isolation as a pharmaceutical-grade preparation or as part of a CBD-enriched cannabis herbal extract, is beneficial in decreasing seizure frequency in children with treatment-resistant epilepsy.

Overall, cannabis herbal extracts appear to provide greater efficacy in decreasing seizure frequency, but the studies assessing cannabis herbal extract are either retrospective or small-scale observational studies. The two large randomized controlled studies assessing the efficacy of pharmaceutical-grade CBD in children with Dravet and Lennox-Gastaut syndromes showed similar efficacy to other anticonvulsants. Lack of data regarding appropriate dosing and pediatric pharmacokinetics continues to make authorization of cannabis-based therapies to children with treatment-resistant epilepsy challenging.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31895184

https://insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00004691-202001000-00002

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Antioxidative and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Cannabidiol.

antioxidants-logo“Cannabidiol (CBD) is one of the main pharmacologically active phytocannabinoids of Cannabis sativa L. CBD is non-psychoactive but exerts a number of beneficial pharmacological effects, including anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. The chemistry and pharmacology of CBD, as well as various molecular targets, including cannabinoid receptors and other components of the endocannabinoid system with which it interacts, have been extensively studied. In addition, preclinical and clinical studies have contributed to our understanding of the therapeutic potential of CBD for many diseases, including diseases associated with oxidative stress. Here, we review the main biological effects of CBD, and its synthetic derivatives, focusing on the cellular, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties of CBD.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31881765

https://www.mdpi.com/2076-3921/9/1/21

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Medical Cannabis Use in Palliative Care: Review of Clinical Effectiveness and Guidelines – An Update [Internet].

Cover of Medical Cannabis Use in Palliative Care: Review of Clinical Effectiveness and Guidelines – An Update“Palliative care is defined by the World Health Organization as “an approach that improves the quality of life of patients and their families facing the problem associated with life-threatening illness…”. The last days and hours of a person’s life can be associated with immense physical as well as emotional suffering Relief of pain and other distressing symptoms, and enhancement of quality of life, are among the essential elements of good palliative care. Palliative care could benefit an estimated 69% to 82% of dying individuals in Canada. As Canada’s population ages, with increasing prevalence of chronic conditions and treatments resulting in prolonged life, it is expected that there will be an increased need for palliative care services.

Approximately 9% of Canadians (or 2.7 million) reported using cannabis for medical purposes in the first half of 2019. Herbal cannabis (cannabis sativa) contains hundreds of pharmacological components, many of which are not well-characterized. Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the most prevalent pharmacologically active compound and is primarily responsible for the psychoactive and physical effects of cannabis. Cannabidiol (also commonly referred to as CBD) is the second most prevalent. It has very little if any psychotropic effects. Quantity and ratio of these and other components can vary considerably between plants and even within the same plant.

Two prescription cannabinoids are currently marketed in Canada: Nabiximols (Sativex) which contains THC and cannabidiol, and Nabilone (Cesamet) which is a synthetic cannabinoid. Dronabinol (Marinol), synthetic THC, was withdrawn from the Canadian market however it is available in other jurisdictions. For the purposes of this report, medical cannabis refers to use of the cannabis plant or its extracts or synthetic cannabinoids for medical purposes.

Medical cannabis may be of value for a number of conditions, including but not limited to pain, nausea and vomiting, depression, anxiety and appetite stimulation. Adverse effects of cannabis are very common, developing in 80% to 90% of patients. These include but are not limited to psychiatric disturbances, sedation, speech disorders, impaired memory, dizziness, ataxia, addiction, irritability, and driving impairment. Risk of adverse effects is likely lower with cannabidiol alone as compared to THC. The potential for drug interactions is also an important concern. These risks must be considered along with the an apparent lack of evidence surrounding effectiveness of medical cannabis in many conditions for which its use is promoted.

This report updates and expands on a previous summary of abstracts report.9 The objective of the report is to review evidence and guidelines for use of medical cannabis in the palliative care setting.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31873991

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK551867/

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Medicinal and Synthetic Cannabinoids for Pediatric Patients: A Review of Clinical Effectiveness and Guidelines [Internet].

Cover of Medicinal and Synthetic Cannabinoids for Pediatric Patients: A Review of Clinical Effectiveness and Guidelines“Cannabinoids are pharmacologically active agents extracted from the cannabis plant. Cannabidiol and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) are the most studied cannabinoids and both interact with endocannabinoid receptors in various human tissues. The endocannabinoid system moderates physiological functions, such as neurodevelopment, cognition, and motor control.

The products naturally derived from cannabis include marijuana (dried leaves and flowers, mostly for smoking) and oral cannabinoid extracts with varying concentrations of cannabinoids, including cannabidiol and THC. THC is the main psychoactive constituent and cannabidiol seems to have no psychoactive properties. In addition, there are two synthetical cannabinoids approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the United States, dronabinol and nabilone, which are molecules similar to a type of THC (δ-9-THC)1 Nabilone is also approved in Canada. Dronabinol is indicated for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in children. The use of nabilone in children is not recommended.

In Canada, the minimum age for cannabis consumption varies by provinces and territories, and is either 18 or 19 years. A prescription is required to administer cannabinoids among children. Clinically, cannabis has been used to treat children with epilepsy, cancer palliation and primary treatment, chronic pain, and Parkinson disease.

The adverse events that clinicians need to monitor for include negative psychoactive sequelae and development of tolerance. Psychoactive sequelae may be positive, such as relaxation and euphoria, or negative, such as anxiety and irritability. In 2016, CADTH completed a Summary of Abstracts report on the use of cannabis in children with medical conditions such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorder, Tourette syndrome, epilepsy, posttraumatic stress disorder, or neurodegenerative diseases, and five non-randomized studies were identified. However, there were no control groups in the five studies included in the report.

It is unclear whether there is new evidence or clinical guidance for the use of medical cannabis in children with mental health conditions, neurodegenerative diseases, or pain disorders, particularly in comparison with other possible therapies for those conditions. There is a need to review the clinical effectiveness of cannabis for pediatric care, as well as clinical guidelines.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31873990

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK551866/

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Use of cannabidiol in anxiety and anxiety-related disorders.

“Cannabidiol (CBD) has a proposed novel role in the management of anxiety owing to its actions on the endocannabinoid system.

The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate the current evidence on the safety and efficacy of CBD in anxiety and anxiety-related disorders.

RESULTS:

Eight articles were included in the review: 6 small, randomized controlled trials; 1 case series; and 1 case report. These studies examined the role of CBD in the anxiety response of healthy volunteers; in generalized anxiety disorder; in social anxiety disorder; and in the anxiety component of posttraumatic stress syndrome. No articles that evaluated CBD in panic disorder, specific phobia, separation anxiety, and obsessive-compulsive disorder were identified. In the studies, CBD was administered orally as a capsule or as a sublingual spray and as either monotherapy or adjunctive therapy. Doses varied widely, with studies employing fixed CBD doses ranging from 6 mg to 400 mg per dose. Various anxiety assessment scales were used in the studies to assess efficacy, with CBD demonstrating improved clinical outcomes among the instruments. In general, CBD was well-tolerated and associated with minimal adverse effects, with the most commonly noted adverse effects being fatigue and sedation.

CONCLUSION:

CBD has a promising role as alternative therapy in the management of anxiety disorders. However, more studies with standardized approaches to dosing and clinical outcome measurements are needed to determine the appropriate dosing strategy for CBD and its place in therapy.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31866386

https://www.japha.org/article/S1544-3191(19)30514-X/fulltext

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Cannabis-based products for pediatric epilepsy: An updated systematic review.

Seizure - European Journal of Epilepsy Home“To provide an up-to-date summary of the benefits and harms of cannabis-based products for epilepsy in children.

METHODS:

We updated our earlier systematic review, by searching for studies published up to May 2019. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and non-randomized studies (NRS) involving cannabis-based products administered to children with epilepsy. Outcomes were seizure freedom, seizure frequency, quality of life, sleep, status epilepticus, death, gastrointestinal adverse events, and emergency room visits.

RESULTS:

Thirty-five studies, including four RCTs, have assessed the benefits and harms of cannabis-based products in pediatric epilepsy (12 since April 2018). All involved cannabis-based products as adjunctive treatment, and most involved cannabidiol. In the RCTs, there was no statistically significant difference between cannabidiol and placebo for seizure freedom (relative risk 6.77, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.36-128.38), quality of life (mean difference [MD] 0.6, 95 %CI -2.6 to 3.9), or sleep disruption (MD -0.3, 95 %CI -0.8 to 0.2). Data from both RCTs and NRS suggest that cannabidiol reduces seizure frequency and increases treatment response; however, there is an increased risk of gastrointestinal adverse events.

CONCLUSION:

Newly available evidence supports earlier findings that cannabidiol probably reduces the frequency of seizures among children with drug-resistant epilepsy.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31865133

https://www.seizure-journal.com/article/S1059-1311(19)30733-2/fulltext

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