Cannabinoid system involves in the analgesic effect of protocatechuic acid.

 “Protocatechuic acid is an antioxidant which is shown to have analgesic activity in limited studies. However, the mechanisms of action remain unclear.

OBJECTIVES:

It is aimed to investigate the possible contribution of cannabinoid system that supresses the nociceptive process by the activation of CB1 and CB2 receptors in central and peripheral levels of pain pathways, to the analgesic activity of protocatechuic acid.

RESULTS:

It was determined that protocatechuic acid has dose-dependent analgesic effect independently from locomotor activity and is comparable with effects of dipyrone and WIN 55,212-2. Pre-treatment with CB1 receptor antagonist AM251 significantly antagonized the protocatechuic acid-induced analgesia in the tail-immersion and writhing tests, whereas pre-treatment of CB2 receptor antagonist AM630 was found to be effective only in the tail-immersion test.

CONCLUSION:

It is concluded that cannabinoid modulation contributes to the analgesic effect of protocatechuic acid in spinal level rather than peripheral. CB1 receptor stimulation rather than CB2 receptor stimulation mediates the analgesic effect of protocatechuic acid in both levels, especially peripheral. Graphical abstract Protocatechuic acid inhibits pain response via cannabinoidergic system.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31325037

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40199-019-00288-x

“Protocatechuic acid (PCA) is a dihydroxybenzoic acid, a type of phenolic acid. It is a major metabolite of antioxidant polyphenols found in green tea.”  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Protocatechuic_acid

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Cannabidiol: Recent advances and new insights for neuropsychiatric disorders treatment.

Life Sciences

“The pharmacological research on the Cannabis sativa-derived compounds has never terminated. Among the phytocannabinoids without psychotropic effects, the prevalent one in Cannabis is cannabidiol (CBD). Although CBD was initially considered a type 2 cannabinoid receptor (CB2R) antagonist, it did not show a good cannabinoidergic activity. Furthermore, heterogeneous results were obtained in experimental animal models of anxiety disorders, psychotic stages and neurodegenerative diseases. Recently, CBD has been authorized by the FDA to treat some rare forms of epilepsy and many trials have begun for the treatment of autism spectrum disorders. This review aims to clarify the pharmacological activity of CBD and its multiple therapeutic applications. Furthermore, critical and conflicting results of the research on CBD are discussed with a focus on promising future prospects.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30910646

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0024320519302176?via%3Dihub

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Cannabimimetic plants: are they new cannabinoidergic modulators?

“Phytochemicals and secondary metabolites able to interact with the endocannabinoid system (Cannabimimetics) have been recently described in a broad range of plants and fruits. These findings can open new alternative avenues to explore for the development of novel therapeutic compounds. The cannabinoids regulate many physiological and pathological functions in both animals and plants. Cannabis sativa is the main plant that produces phytocannabinoids inside resins capable to defend the plant from the aggression of parasites and herbivores. Animals produce anandamide and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol, which thanks to binding with main receptors such as type-1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1R) and the type-2 cannabinoid receptor (CB2R) are involved in inflammation processes and several brain functions. Endogenous cannabinoids, enzymes for synthesis and degradation of cannabinoids, and CB1R and CB2R constitute the endocannabinoid system (ECS). Other plants can produce cannabinoid-like molecules such as perrottetinene extracted from Radula perrottetii, or anandamide and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol extracted from some bryophytes. Moreover, several other secondary metabolites can also interact with the ECS of animals and take the name of cannabimimetics. These phytoextracts not derived from Cannabis sativa can act as receptor agonists or antagonist, or enzyme inhibitors of ECS and can be involved in the inflammation, oxidative stress, cancer, and neuroprotection. Finally, given the evolutionary heterogeneity of the cannabimimetic plants, some authors speculated on the fascinating thesis of the evolutionary convergence between plants and animals regarding biological functions of ECS. The review aims to provide a critical and complete assessment of the botanical, chemical and therapeutic aspects of cannabimimetic plants to evaluate their spread in the world and medicinal potentiality.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30877436

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00425-019-03138-x

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Cannabinoids in health and disease: pharmacological potential in metabolic syndrome and neuroinflammation.

 

Image result for Horm Mol Biol Clin Investig

“The use of different natural and/or synthetic preparations of Cannabis sativa is associated with therapeutic strategies for many diseases. Indeed, thanks to the widespread diffusion of the cannabinoidergic system in the brain and in the peripheral districts, its stimulation, or inhibition, regulates many pathophysiological phenomena.

In particular, central activation of the cannabinoidergic system modulates the limbic and mesolimbic response which leads to food craving.

Moreover, cannabinoid agonists are able to reduce inflammatory response.

In this review a brief history of cannabinoids and the protagonists of the endocannabinoidergic system, i.e. synthesis and degradation enzymes and main receptors, will be described. Furthermore, the pharmacological effects of cannabinoids will be outlined. An overview of the involvement of the endocannabinoidergic system in neuroinflammatory and metabolic pathologies will be made.

Finally, particular attention will also be given to the new pharmacological entities acting on the two main receptors, cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) and cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2), with particular focus on the neuroinflammatory and metabolic mechanisms involved.”

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The Cannabinoid Receptor CB1 Interacts with the WAVE1 Complex and Plays a Role in Actin Dynamics and Structural Plasticity in Neurons.

“The molecular composition of the cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor complex beyond the classical G-protein signaling components is not known.

Using proteomics on mouse cortex in vivo, we pulled down proteins interacting with CB1 in neurons and show that the CB1 receptor assembles with multiple members of the WAVE1 complex and the RhoGTPase Rac1 and modulates their activity…

This study reports novel signaling mechanisms for cannabinoidergic modulation of the nervous system and demonstrates a previously unreported role for the WAVE1 complex in therapeutic applications of cannabinoids.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26496209

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Interaction between Cannabinoid Compounds and Capsazepine in Protection against Acute Pentylenetetrazole-induced Seizure in Mice.

“The pharmacological interaction between cannabinoidergic system and vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) channels has been investigated in various conditions such as pain and anxiety.

In some brain structure including hippocampus, CB1 and TRPV1 receptors coexist and their activation produces opposite effect on excitability of neurons.

In this study, we tested the hypothesis that TRPV1 channel is involved in the modulation of cannabinoid effects on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizure threshold…

The anticonvulsant actions of both capsazepine and ACEA were attenuated after co-administration of these compounds. Moreover, the anticonvulsant action of capsazepine was attenuated after co-administration with VDM11.

The results suggest an interaction between cannabinoidergic system and TRPV1 receptors in protection against acute PTZ-induced seizure in mice.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26185513

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