Cannabidiol enhances microglial phagocytosis via transient receptor potential (TRP) channel activation.

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“Microglial cells are important mediators of the immune response in the CNS. The phytocannabinoid, cannabidiol (CBD), has been shown to have central anti-inflammatory properties, and the purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of CBD and other phytocannabinoids on microglial phagocytosis.

CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS:

The TRPV-dependent phagocytosis-enhancing effect of CBD suggests that pharmacological modification of TRPV channel activity could be a rational approach to treating neuroinflammatory disorders involving changes in microglial function and that CBD is a potential starting point for future development of novel therapeutics acting on the TRPV receptor family.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24641282

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Modulation of L-α-lysophosphatidylinositol/GPR55 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling by cannabinoids.

“This study has implications for developing new therapeutics for the treatment of cancer, pain, and metabolic disorders.

GPR55 is activated by l-α-lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI) but also by certain cannabinoids.

In this study, we investigated the GPR55 pharmacology of various cannabinoids, including analogues of the CB1 receptor antagonist Rimonabant®, CB2 receptor agonists, and Cannabis sativa constituents.

Here, we show that CB1 receptor antagonists can act both as agonists alone and as inhibitors of LPI signaling under the same assay conditions. This study clarifies the controversy surrounding the GPR55-mediated actions of SR141716A; some reports indicate the compound to be an agonist and some report antagonism. In contrast, we report that the CB2 ligand GW405833 behaves as a partial agonist of GPR55 alone and enhances LPI signaling. GPR55 has been implicated in pain transmission, and thus our results suggest that this receptor may be responsible for some of the antinociceptive actions of certain CB2 receptor ligands.

Here, we report that the little investigated cannabis constituents CBDV, CBGA, and CBGV are potent inhibitors of LPI-induced GPR55 signaling.

The phytocannabinoids Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin, cannabidivarin, and cannabigerovarin are also potent inhibitors of LPI.

Our findings also suggest that GPR55 may be a new pharmacological target for the following C. sativa constituents: Δ9-THCV, CBDV, CBGA, and CBGV.

These Cannabis sativa constituents may represent novel therapeutics targeting GPR55.”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3249141/

“Lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI) is a bioactive lipid generated by phospholipase A2 which is believed to play an important role in several diseases.”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22285325

 “The putative cannabinoid receptor GPR55 promotes cancer cell proliferation.  In this issue of Oncogene, two groups demonstrated that GPR55 is expressed in various cancer types in an aggressiveness-related manner, suggesting a novel cancer biomarker and a potential therapeutic target.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21057532
“The orphan G protein-coupled receptor GPR55 promotes cancer cell proliferation via ERK. These findings reveal the importance of GPR55 in human cancer, and suggest that it could constitute a new biomarker and therapeutic target in oncology.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20818416
“The putative cannabinoid receptor GPR55 defines a novel autocrine loop in cancer cell proliferation. These findings may have important implications for LPI as a novel cancer biomarker and for its receptor GPR55 as a potential therapeutic target.”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20838378
“L-α-lysophosphatidylinositol meets GPR55: a deadly relationship. Evidence points to a role of L-α-lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI) in cancer.”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21367464
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Cannabis and cancer: toward a new understanding

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“The treatment of cancer, including the disease itself and the symptoms associated with cancer and its therapy, is one of the most important emerging frontiers in cannabinoid therapeutics.

This Current Oncology supplement brings together the work of some of the leading minds around the world who have dedicated themselves and their laboratories to understanding the role of cannabis and cannabinoids in the pathophysiology and management of cancer.

It is an unfortunate reality of 2016 that many doctors still lack the basic knowledge about cannabis, cannabinoids, and the endocannabinoid system that would enable them to have an informed discussion with their patients, and that the knowledge gap gives rise to stigmatization, alienation, and a fracture of the doctor–patient relationship.

Our patient describes her experience in trying to find answers and assistance, and with the help of her treating oncologist, she succeeds in securing legal access to cannabinoids, with remarkable results. Stories of this kind are occurring too often to be ignored or written off as placebo responses or outliers. As a medical profession, we are duty-bound to follow up on such experiences with critical and balanced investigation.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4791146/

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Use of cannabinoids in cancer care: palliative care

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“Cannabinoid Integrative Medicine In Oncologic Palliative Care.

The opportunities to improve and expand palliative care are many. In this supplement, Current Oncology is presenting a discussion on cannabinoid therapeutics. I believe that, as a therapeutic class, cannabinoids have an important role to play in oncologic palliative care—a role that I predict will only grow with time, as knowledge and acceptance of these agents becomes mainstream once more, as in the 19th and early 20th century in North America and Europe.”

http://www.current-oncology.com/index.php/oncology/article/view/2962/2087

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Endocannabinoids in Multiple Sclerosis and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

“There are numerous reports that people with multiple sclerosis (MS) have for many years been self-medicating with illegal street cannabis or more recently medicinal cannabis to alleviate the symptoms associated with MS and also amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).

These anecdotal reports have been confirmed by data from animal models and more recently clinical trials on the ability of cannabinoids to alleviate limb spasticity, a common feature of progressive MS (and also ALS) and neurodegeneration.

Experimental studies into the biology of the endocannabinoid system have revealed that cannabinoids have efficacy, not only in symptom relief but also as neuroprotective agents which may slow disease progression and thus delay the onset of symptoms.

This review discusses what we now know about the endocannabinoid system as it relates to MS and ALS and also the therapeutic potential of cannabinoid therapeutics as disease-modifying or symptom control agents, as well as future therapeutic strategies including the potential for slowing disease progression in MS and ALS.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26408162

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Endocannabinoid signaling in Alzheimer’s disease: current knowledge and future directions.

“The importance of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) in the modulation functions of the central nervous system has been extensively investigated during the last few years. In particular, accumulated evidence has implicated ECS in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), that is a progressive, degenerative, and irreversible disorder characterized by the accumulation in the brain of beta-amyloid fragments forming insoluble plaques, and of intracellular neurofibrillary tangles (NTFs) associated with synaptic and neuronal loss. In all the processes involved in the formation of both plaques and NFTs, the key-role played by the ECS has been documented. Here, we review current knowledge and future directions of ECS modulation both in animal models of AD and in human tissues, underlying the role of endocannabinoid signaling in the development of AD hallmarks. Overall, the available data suggest that next generation therapeutics might target distinct ECS elements, for instance CB2 receptor or fatty acid amide hydrolase, as a promising approach to halt or at least to slow down disease progression.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24813316

http://www.thctotalhealthcare.com/category/alzheimers-disease-ad/

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GW Pharmaceuticals Announces Results of MS Spasticity Study Confirming Sativex Has No Long-Term Negative Effect on Cognition

“-Provides Further Evidence of Long-term Efficacy-

GW Pharmaceuticals, a biopharmaceutical company focused on discovering, developing and commercializing novel therapeutics from its proprietary cannabinoid product platform, announces top-line results from a 12 month placebo-controlled study of Sativex in patients with spasticity due to Multiple Sclerosis (MS).

The study results confirm the reassuring safety profile of Sativex and provide further evidence of long-term efficacy.”

More: http://finance.yahoo.com/news/gw-pharmaceuticals-announces-results-ms-060000735.html

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Cannabis Use, Effect And Potential Therapy For Alzheimer’s, MS and Parkinson’s

“The illegal status and wide-spread use of cannabis made basic and clinical cannabis research difficult in the past decades; on the other hand, it has stimulated efforts to identify the psychoactive constituents of cannabis. As a consequence, the endocannabinoid system was discovered, which was shown to be involved in most physiological systems — the nervous, the cardiovascular, the reproductive, the immune system, to mention a few.

One of the main roles of endocannabinoids is neuroprotection, but over the last decade they have been found to affect a long list of processes, from anxiety, depression, cancer development, vasodilatation to bone formation and even pregnancy.

Cannabinoids and endocannabinoids are supposed to represent a medicinal treasure trove which waits to be discovered…

The endocannabinoid system acts as a guardian against various attacks on the mammalian body.

Conclusion

The above described research concerning the endocannabinoid-system is of importance in both basic science and in therapeutics:

  • The discovery of the cannabis plant active constituent has helped advance our understanding of cannabis use and its effects.
  • The discovery of the endocannabinoids has been of central importance in establishing the existence of a new biochemical system and its physiological roles — in particular in neuroprotection.
  • These discoveries have opened the door for the development of novel types of drugs, such as THC for the treatment of nausea and for enhancing appetite in cachectic patients.
  • The endocannabinoid system is involved in the protective reaction of the mammalian body to a long list of neurological diseases such as multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease which raises hope for novel therapeutic opportunities for these diseases.”

More: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/10/071014163644.htm

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Therapeutic Utility of Cannabinoid Receptor Type 2 (CB2) Selective Agonists.

“The cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2), is a class A GPCR that was cloned in 1993 while looking for an alternate receptor that could explain the pharmacological properties of 9- tetrahydrocannabinol. CB2 was identified among cDNAs based on its similarity in amino-acid sequence to the CB1 receptor and helped provide an explanation for the established effects of cannabinoids on the immune system.

In addition to the immune system, CB2 has widespread tissue expression and has been found in brain, PNS and GI tract. Several “mixed” cannabinoid agonists are currently in clinical use primarily for controlling pain and it is believed that selective CB2 agonism may afford a superior analgesic agent devoid of the centrally mediated CB1 effects.

Thus, selective CB2 receptor agonists represent high value putative therapeutics for treating pain and other disease states. In this perspective, we seek to provide a concise update of progress in the field.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23865723

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Epigenetic Control of Skin Differentiation Genes by Phytocannabinoids.

“A role for endocannabinoid signaling has been reported in the control of epidermal physiology, whereby anandamide is able to regulate the expression of skin differentiation genes through DNA methylation. Here, we have investigated the possible epigenetic regulation of these genes by selected phytocannabinoids, plant-derived cannabinoids holding potential as novel therapeutics for various human diseases.

CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS:

These findings identify the phytocannabinoids cannabidiol and cannabigerol as transcriptional repressors that can control cell proliferation and differentiation, suggesting (especially for cannabidiol) a possible exploitation as lead compounds to be used in the development of novel therapeutics for skin diseases.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23869687

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