Lifetime marijuana use in relation to insulin resistance in lean, overweight and obese U.S. adults.

Journal of Diabetes banner“Obese individuals are more likely to show insulin resistance (IR). However, limited population studies on marijuana use with markers of IR yield mixed results.

METHODS:

We abstracted data from the 2009-2016 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). We estimated the minimal lifetime marijuana use using the duration of regular exposure and the frequency of use. We used generalized linear models to determine the association of marijuana use with both fasting insulin and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in lean, overweight and obese individuals, separately. We used interview weight years of data to account for the unequal probability of sampling and non-response.

RESULTS:

Of the total of 129,509 adults aged 18 to 59 years, 50.3% were women. In current obese consumers, the mean insulin in those with < 4 uses/months was 52% (95% CI: 19% to 71%) lower than in never users. Former obese consumers with ≥ 8 uses/month and who stopped marijuana use < 12 months showed 47% (95% CI: 18% to 66%) lower insulin. Those with last use of 12-119 months and ≥ 120 months had 36% (95% CI: 7% to 57%) and 36% (95% CI: 10% to 54%) lower insulin, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS:

Marijuana use is associated with lower fasting insulin and HOMA-IR in obese but not in non-obese adults, even at low frequency of < 4 uses per month. Former consumers with high lifetime use had a significant lower insulin levels which persists, independent of the duration of time since last use.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31152633

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/1753-0407.12958

Study: Cannabis Protective Against Diabetes Among Those Overweight”  https://norml.org/news/2019/06/20/study-cannabis-protective-against-diabetes-among-those-overweight

“Cannabis use could help prevent diabetes”  https://mogreenway.com/2019/06/24/cannabis-use-could-help-prevent-diabetes/

“Cannabis linked to lower insulin levels in adults at risk of type 2 diabetes”  https://www.diabetes.co.uk/news/2019/jul/cannabis-linked-to-lower-insulin-levels-in-adults-at-risk-of-type-2-diabetes-99514193.html

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Cannabis consumption and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. A three years longitudinal study in first episode non-affective psychosis patients.

Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry“Increased incidence of obesity and excess weight lead to an increased incidence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Recent evidence indicates a protective effect of cannabis consumption on weight gain and related metabolic alterations in psychosis patients. Overall, patients are at greater risk of presenting fatty diseases, such as NAFLD, partly due to lipid and glycemic metabolic disturbances. However, there are no previous studies on the likely effect of cannabis on liver steatosis. We aimed to explore if cannabis consumption had an effect on hepatic steatosis, in a sample of first-episode (FEP) non-affective psychosis.

RESULTS:

At 3-year follow-up, cannabis users presented significantly lower FLI scores than non-users (F = 13.874; p < .001). Moreover, cannabis users less frequently met the criteria for liver steatosis than non-users (X2 = 7.97, p = .019). Longitudinally, patients maintaining cannabis consumption after 3 years presented the smallest increment in FLI over time, which was significantly smaller than the increment in FLI presented by discontinuers (p = .022) and never-users (p = .016). No differences were seen in fibrosis scores associated with cannabis.

CONCLUSIONS:

Cannabis consumption may produce a protective effect against liver steatosis in psychosis, probably through the modulation of antipsychotic-induced weight gain.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31228640

“Cannabis consumption is associated with a lower risk of liver steatosis in psychosis. Cannabis use is not associated with liver fibrosis.”

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0278584619301393?via%3Dihub

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Omega-3 Endocannabinoid-Epoxides Are Novel Anti-inflammatory and Anti-Pain Lipid Metabolites (FS15-01-19).

Issue Cover“Omega-3 fatty acid derived endocannabinoids are metabolized by cytochrome P450s to form bioactive endocannabinoid epoxides that are anti-inflammatory.

RESULTS:

Cannabinoids are found in marijuana and also are produced naturally in the body from ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids. Exocannabinoids in marijuana, are known to be responsible for some of its euphoric effects, but they also exhibit anti-inflammatory benefits. Our study revealed a cascade of enzymatic reactions that convert ω-3 fatty acids into anti-inflammatory endocannabinoid epoxides that act through the same receptors in the body as marijuana (PNAS 2017).

Endocannabinoids are ligands for cannabinoidreceptor 1 and 2 (CB1 and CB2). CB1 receptor agonists exhibit psychotropic properties while CB2 receptor agonists have anti-inflammatory effects. Consequently, there is a strong interest in the discovery of CB2 selective agonists to mitigate inflammatory pathologies. The work details the discovery and characterization of naturally occurring ω-3-derived endocannabinoid epoxides that are formed via enzymatic oxidation of ω-3 endocannabinoids by cytochrome P450 epoxygenases. These dual functional ω-3 endocannabinoid epoxides exhibit preference towards binding to CB2 receptor and are anti-inflammatory and vasodilatory and reciprocally modulate platelet aggregation. Some of the other regioisomers of ω-3 endocannabinoid epoxides are partial agonists of CB1 and stop tumor cell metastasis (J. Med. Chem 2018). By virtue of their physiological properties, they are expected to play important roles in neuroinflammation and pain.

CONCLUSIONS:

This finding demonstrates how omega-3 fatty acids can produce some of the same medicinal qualities as marijuana, but without a psychotropic effect. In summary, the ω-3 endocannabinoid epoxides are found at concentrations comparable to those of other endocannabinoids and are expected to play critical roles during inflammation in vivo.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31223777

https://academic.oup.com/cdn/article/3/Supplement_1/nzz031.FS15-01-19/5518049

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A systematic review of cannabidiol dosing in clinical populations.

British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology banner“Cannabidiol is a cannabis-derived medicinal product with potential application in a wide-variety of contexts, however its effective dose in different disease states remains unclear. This review aimed to investigate what doses have been applied in clinical populations, in order to understand the active range of cannabidiol in a variety of medical contexts.

RESULTS:

A total of 1038 articles were retrieved, of which 35 studies met inclusion criteria covering 13 medical contexts. 23 studies reported a significant improvement in primary outcomes (e.g. psychotic symptoms, anxiety, seizures), with doses ranging between <1 – 50 mg/Kg/day. Plasma concentrations were not provided in any publication. Cannabidiol was reported as well tolerated and epilepsy was the most frequently studied medical condition, with all 11 studies demonstrating positive effects of cannabidiol on reducing seizure frequency or severity (average 15 mg/Kg/day within randomised controlled trials). There was no signal of positive activity of CBD in small randomised controlled trials (range n=6-62) assessing diabetes, Crohn’s disease, ocular hypertension, fatty liver disease or chronic pain. However, low doses (average 2.4 mg/Kg/day) were used in these studies.

CONCLUSION:

This review highlights cannabidiol has a potential wide range of activity in several pathologies. Pharmacokinetic studies as well as conclusive phase III trials to elucidate effective plasma concentrations within medical contexts are severely lacking and highly encouraged.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31222854

https://bpspubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/bcp.14038

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Preparation of bivalent agonists for targeting the mu opioid and cannabinoid receptors.

European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry

“In order to obtain novel pharmacological tools and to investigate a multitargeting analgesic strategy, the CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptor agonist JWH-018 was conjugated with the opiate analgesic oxycodone or with an enkephalin related tetrapeptide. The opioid and cannabinoid pharmacophores were coupled via spacers of different length and chemical structure. In vitro radioligand binding experiments confirmed that the resulting bivalent compounds bound both to the opioid and to the cannabinoid receptors with moderate to high affinity. The highest affinity bivalent derivatives 11 and 19 exhibited agonist properties in [35S]GTPγS binding assays. These compounds activated MOR and CB (11 mainly CB2, whereas 19 mainly CB1) receptor-mediated signaling, as it was revealed by experiments using receptor specific antagonists. In rats both 11 and 19 exhibited antiallodynic effect similar to the parent drugs in 20 μg dose at spinal level. These results support the strategy of multitargeting G-protein coupled receptors to develop lead compounds with antinociceptive properties.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31220675

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0223523419304477?via%3Dihub

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Quetiapine induces myocardial necroptotic cell death through bidirectional regulation of cannabinoid receptors.

Toxicology Letters

“Quetiapine is a common atypical antipsychotic used to treat mental disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder. There has been increasing number of reports describing its cardiotoxicity. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying quetiapine-induced myocardial injury remain largely unknown.

Herein, we reported a novel cell death type, quetiapine-induced necroptosis, which accounted for quetiapine cardiotoxicity in mice and proposed novel therapeutic strategies.

Quetiapine-treated hearts showed inflammatory infiltration and evident fibrosis after 21-day continuous injection. The specific increases of protein levels of RIP3, MLKL and the phosphorylation of MLKL showed that quetiapine-induced necroptotic cell death both in vivo and in vitro. Pharmacologic blockade of necroptosis using its specific inhibitor Necrostatin-1 attenuated quetiapine-induced myocardial injury in mice.

In addition, quetiapine imbalanced the endocannabinoid system and caused opposing effects on two cannabinoid receptors (CB1R and CB2R).

Specific antagonists of CB1R (AM 281, Rimonabant), but not its agonist ACEA significantly ameliorated the heart histopathology induced by chronic quetiapine exposure. By contrast, specific agonists of CB2R (JWH-133, AM 1241), but not its antagonist AM 630 exerted beneficial roles against quetiapine cardiotoxicity.

The protective agents (AM 281, Rimonabant, AM 1241, and JWH-133) consistently inactivated the quetiapine-induced necroptosis signaling. Quetiapine bidirectionally regulates cannabinoid receptors and induces myocardial necroptosis, leading to cardiac toxic effects.

Therefore, pharmacologic inhibition of CB1R or activation of CB2R represents promising therapeutic strategies against quetiapine-induced cardiotoxicity.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31220554

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378427419301766?via%3Dihub

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Alcohol-induced conditioned place preference is modulated by CB2 cannabinoid receptors and modifies levels of endocannabinoids in the mesocorticolimbic system.

Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior

“The endocannabinoid (eCB) system is a particularly important neuronal mechanism implicated in alcohol use disorders. Animal models are key to broadening our knowledge of the neurobiological mechanisms underlying alcohol dependence.

This study has two main aims: i) to assess how eCB levels in different brain areas are modified by alcohol-induced conditioning place preference (CPP), and ii) to study how cannabinoid type 2 receptor (CB2R) is involved in alcohol-rewarding properties, using pharmacological manipulation in C57BL/6 mice.

Our results suggest that the eCB system is dysregulated throughout the mesocorticolimbic system by repeated alcohol exposure during the CPP paradigm, and that levels of anandamide (AEA) and several other N-acylethanolamines are markedly decreased in the medial prefrontal cortex and ventral midbrain of alcohol-CPP mice.

We also observed that the administering an antagonist/inverse agonist of the CB2R (AM630) during the acquisition phase of CPP reduced the rewarding effects of alcohol. However, activating CB2R signalling using the agonist JWH133 seems to reduce both alcohol- and food-rewarding behaviours. Therefore, our findings indicate that the rewarding effects of alcohol are related to its disruptive effect on AEA and other N-acylethanolamine signalling pathways.

Thus, pharmacological manipulation of CB2R is an interesting candidate treatment for alcohol use disorders.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31220547

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0091305719300656?via%3Dihub

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Molecular docking analysis of phyto-constituents from Cannabis sativa with pfDHFR.

Image result for Bioinformation journal

“Available antimalarial drugs have been associated with numerous side effects, which include skin rashes and myelo-suppression. Therefore, it is of interest to explore compounds from natural source having drug-like properties without side effect.

This study focuses on the screening of compounds from Cannabis sativa against malaria Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase for antimalarial properties using Glide (Schrodinger maestro 2018-1).

The result showed that phytochemicals from Cannabis sativa binds with a higher affinity and lower free energy than the standard ligand with isovitexin and vitexin having a glide score of -11.485 and -10.601 respectively, sophoroside has a glide score of -9.711 which is lower than the cycloguanil (co-crystallized ligand) having a glide score of -6.908.

This result gives new perception to the use of Cannabis sativa as antimicrobial agent.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31223216

http://www.bioinformation.net/014/97320630014574.htm

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Aplicaciones terapéuticas por acción de los cannabinoides.

“The interest on cannabinoids became evident between the 1940 and 1950 decades. Although the active substance of the plant was not known, a series of compounds with cannabinomimetic activity were synthesized, which were investigated in animals and clinically. The most widely tested was Δ6a, 10a-THC hexyl. Δ6a, 10a-THC dimethylheptyl (DMHP) antiepileptic effects were studied in several children, with positive results being obtained in some cases. DMHP differs from sinhexyl in that its side chain is DMHP instead of n-hexyl. The first cannabinoid isolated from Cannabis sativa was cannabinol, although its structure was correctly characterized several years later. Cannabidiol was isolated some years later and was subsequently characterized by Mechoulam and Shvo. In 2013, the National Academy of Medicine and the Faculty of Medicine of the National Autonomous University of Mexico, through the Seminar of Studies on Entirety, decided to carry out a systematic review on a subject that is both complex and controversial: the relationship between marijuana and health. In recent years, studies have been conducted with cannabis in several diseases: controlled clinical trials on spasticity in multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury, chronic, essentially neuropathic, pain, movement disorders (Gilles de Latourette, dystonia, levodopa dyskinesia), asthma and glaucoma, as well as non-controlled clinical trials on Alzheimer’s disease, neuroprotection, intractable hiccups, epilepsy, alcohol and opioid dependence and inflammatory processes.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31219471

http://gacetamedicademexico.com/frame_esp.php?id=310

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Cognitive functioning following long-term cannabidiol use in adults with treatment-resistant epilepsy.

“Cognitive dysfunction is a common comorbidity in adults with treatment-resistant epilepsy (TRE).

Recently, cannabidiol (CBD) has demonstrated efficacy in epilepsy treatment. However, our understanding of CBD’s cognitive effects in epilepsy is limited.

We examined long-term cognitive effects of CBD in adults with TRE as part of an ongoing prospective, open-label safety study.

Longitudinal analysis revealed no significant group change across the two global composite scales. Of the seven individual cognitive tests, none changed significantly over time. No correlation was found between the cognitive change scores and CBD dose (all P’s ≥; 0.2). Change in cognitive test performance was not associated change in seizure severity rating.

These findings are encouraging and indicate that long-term administration of pharmaceutical grade CBD is overall cognitively well-tolerated in adults with TRE.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31220785

https://www.epilepsybehavior.com/article/S1525-5050(18)30931-4/fulltext

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