Decreased sensitivity in adolescent versus adult rats to the antidepressant-like effects of cannabidiol.

SpringerLink“Cannabidiol is a non-psychoactive phytocannabinoid with great therapeutic potential in diverse psychiatric disorders; however, its antidepressant potential has been mainly ascertained in adult rats.

OBJECTIVES:

To compare the antidepressant-like response induced by cannabidiol in adolescent and adult rats and the possible parallel modulation of hippocampal neurogenesis.

RESULTS:

Cannabidiol induced differential effects depending on the age and dose administered, with a decreased sensitivity observed in adolescent rats: (1) cannabidiol (30 mg/kg) decreased body weight only in adult rats; (2) cannabidiol ameliorated behavioral despair in adolescent and adult rats, but with a different dose sensitivity (10 vs. 30 mg/kg), and with a different extent (2 vs. 21 days post-treatment); (3) cannabidiol did not modulate anxiety-like behavior at any dose tested in adolescent or adult rats; and (4) cannabidiol increased sucrose intake in adult rats.

CONCLUSIONS:

Our findings support the notion that cannabidiol exerts antidepressant- and anorexigenic-like effects in adult rats and demonstrate a decreased potential when administered in adolescent rats. Moreover, since cannabidiol did not modulate hippocampal neurogenesis (cell proliferation and early neuronal survival) in adolescent or adult rats, the results revealed potential antidepressant-like effects induced by cannabidiol without the need of regulating hippocampal neurogenesis.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32086540

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00213-020-05481-4

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Cannabis use in people with multiple sclerosis and spasticity: A cross-sectional analysis.

Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders Home

“Growing evidence supports that cannabinoids relieve MS-related spasticity but little is known about cannabis use among people with MS (PwMS) and spasticity.

 

OBJECTIVE:

To characterize cannabis use among PwMS and spasticity.

METHODS:

As part of baseline data collection for a spasticity intervention trial in Oregon, PwMS and self-reported spasticity answered questions about cannabis use.

RESULTS:

54% reported ever using cannabis and 36% currently use. 79% use multiple routes of administration, 58% use at least daily. 79% find cannabis helpful for spasticity and 26% use cannabis and prescribed oral antispasticity medications.

CONCLUSIONS:

Many PwMS and spasticity use cannabis and report it helps their spasticity.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32086163

https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S2211034820300857

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Quality of Life, Mental Health, Personality and Patterns of Use in Self-Medicated Cannabis Users with Chronic Diseases: A 12-Month Longitudinal Study.

Phytotherapy Research“The number of patients using cannabis for therapeutic purposes is growing worldwide. While research regarding the treatment of certain diseases/disorders with cannabis and cannabinoids is also expanding, only a few longitudinal studies have assessed the mid-term impacts of medical cannabis use on psychological variables and quality of life (QoL).

The aim of the study was to assess the psychological safety and QoL of patients with chronic diseases who self-medicate with cannabis over time.

We recruited patients with various chronic diseases who use cannabis and collected data regarding patterns of cannabis use as well as mental health, personality and QoL. Participants were followed-up at baseline, 4, 8 and 12 months. Hair analysis was conducted to confirm the presence of cannabinoids. Personality assessment showed a consistent decrease in self-transcendence and self-directedness scores.

Neither cognitive nor psychopathological deterioration was found. There were also no variations in QoL. Mid-term use of medical cannabis seems to show adequate tolerability regarding cognitive and psychopathological abilities, and it may help patients with chronic diseases to maintain an acceptable QoL.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32083789

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/ptr.6639

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Cannabinoid-mediated Modulation of Oxidative Stress and Early Inflammatory Response after Hypoxia-Ischemia.

ijms-logo“In the process of neonatal encephalopathy, oxidative stress and neuroinflammation have a prominent role after perinatal asphyxia. With the exception of therapeutic hypothermia, no therapeutic interventions are available in the clinical setting to target either the oxidative stress or inflammation, despite the high prevalence of neurological sequelae of this devastating condition.

The endocannabinoid system (ECS), recently recognized as a widespread neuromodulatory system, plays an important role in the development of the central nervous system (CNS).

This study aims to evaluate the potential effect of the cannabinoid (CB) agonist WIN 55,212-2 (WIN) on reactive oxygen species (ROS) and early inflammatory cytokine production after hypoxia-ischemia (HI) in fetal lambs.

Hypoxic-ischemic animals were subjected to 60 min of HI by partial occlusion of the umbilical cord. A group of lambs received a single dose of 0.01 μg/kg WIN, whereas non-asphyctic animals served as controls. WIN reduced the widespread and notorious increase in inflammatory markers tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 induced by HI, a modulatory effect not observed for oxidative stress.

Our study suggests that treatment with a low dose of WIN can alter the profile of pro-inflammatory cytokines 3 h after HI.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32074976

https://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/21/4/1283

“Cannabinoid as a neuroprotective strategy in perinatal hypoxic-ischemic injury.”   https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21788999

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Cannabidiol protects against high glucose-induced oxidative stress and cytotoxicity in cardiac voltage-gated sodium channels.

Publication cover image“Cardiovascular complications are the major cause of mortality in diabetic patients. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying diabetes-associated arrhythmias are unclear.

We hypothesized that high glucose, could adversely affect Nav1.5, the major cardiac sodium channel isoform of the heart, at least partially via oxidative stress.

We further hypothesized that cannabidiol (CBD), one of the main constituents of Cannabis sativa, through its effects on Nav1.5, could protect against high glucose elicited oxidative stress and cytotoxicity.

KEY RESULTS:

High glucose evoked cell death associated with elevation in reactive oxygen species, right shifted the voltage dependence of conductance and steady state fast inactivation and increased persistent current leading to computational prolongation of action potential (hyperexcitability) which could result in long QT3 arrhythmia. CBD mitigated all the deleterious effects provoked by high glucose. Perfusion with Lidocaine (a well-known sodium channels inhibitor with anti-oxidant effects), or co-incubation of Tempol (a well-known anti-oxidant) elicited protection, comparable to CBD, against the deleterious effects of high glucose.

CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS:

These findings suggest that, through its favourable anti-oxidant and sodium channel inhibitory effects, CBD may protect against high-glucose induced arrhythmia and cytotoxicity.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32077098

https://bpspubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/bph.15020

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Cannabidiol as a treatment option for schizophrenia: recent evidence and current studies.

Image result for current opinion in psychiatry “The most recent studies published or initiated in the last 18 months, investigating cannabidiol in the treatment of symptoms of schizophrenia and related conditions are summarized, including observed tolerability and reported side-effects.

RECENT FINDINGS:

Recent studies focused on patients with sub-acute psychotic syndromes of schizophrenia, clinical high-risk state for psychosis (CHR-P), or frequent cannabis users, as well as cognitive functioning in chronic schizophrenia. There is further, although not consistent evidence for cannabidiol-reducing positive symptoms, but not negative symptoms. Evidence for improvement of cognition was weaker, with one study reporting a worsening. Regarding side effects and tolerability, cannabidiol induced sedation in one study, with the other studies indicating good tolerability, even at high doses.

SUMMARY:

Recent clinical trials added further evidence for an antipsychotic potential of cannabidiol. In general, studies following trial designs as suggested by regulators in schizophrenia are needed in sufficient numbers to clarify the safety and efficacy of cannabidiol herein. In addition, such studies will further elucidate its ability to target specific aspects of the syndrome, such as negative or cognitive symptoms. Furthermore, aiming for an add-on treatment with cannabidiol will require further studies to identify potentially useful or even harmful combinations.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32073423

https://journals.lww.com/co-psychiatry/Abstract/publishahead/Cannabidiol_as_a_treatment_option_for.99134.aspx

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Tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol oromucosal spray in resistant multiple sclerosis spasticity: consistency of response across subgroups from the SAVANT randomized clinical trial.

 Publication Cover“To determine whether differences in disability status, spasticity severity, and spasticity duration at treatment start in patients with resistant multiple sclerosis (MS) spasticity might influence response to add-on tetrahydrocannabinol:cannabidiol (THC:CBD) oromucosal spray (nabiximols) versus further re-adjustment of optimized first-line antispasticity medication.

Methods: Using the database from the Sativex® as Add-on therapy Vs. further optimized first-line ANTispastics (SAVANT) study, this post hoc analysis evaluated spasticity severity (0-10 Numerical Rating Scale [NRS] scores) and pain severity (0-10 NRS scores) evolution from randomization (baseline) to week 12 (end of double-blind treatment) in defined subgroups: Expanded Disability Status Scale [EDSS] score subgroups (< 6 and ≥6); spasticity severity 0-10 NRS score subgroups (4 to ≤6 and >6), and spasticity duration subgroups (< 5 and ≥5 years).

Results: THC:CBD oromucosal spray (nabiximols) halved mean severity scores for spasticity and pain in all subgroups. Active treatment significantly improved mean spasticity severity scores versus placebo from week 4 onwards in both EDSS subgroups, in the severe spasticity subgroup, and in both spasticity duration subgroups. Active treatment significantly improved mean pain severity scores versus placebo in the ≥6 EDSS subgroup, in the severe spasticity subgroup and in both spasticity duration subgroups.

Conclusion: Add-on THC:CBD oromucosal spray (nabiximols) consistently relieves resistant spasticity across subgroups defined by baseline EDSS score, spasticity severity NRS score and spasticity duration. Patients with moderate resistant MS spasticity benefit numerically from treatment; patients with severe resistant spasticity achieve significant therapeutic gains. Spasticity-associated pain often improves similarly in the same subgroups.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32065006

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00207454.2020.1730832?journalCode=ines20

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Phytocannabinoids promote viability and functional adipogenesis of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells through different molecular targets.

Biochemical Pharmacology“The cellular microenvironment plays a critical role in the maintenance of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) and their subsequent cell lineage differentiation. Recent studies suggested that individuals with adipocyte-related metabolic disorders have altered function and adipogenic potential of adipose stem cell subpopulations, primarily BM-MSCs, increasing the risk of heart attack, stroke or diabetes.

In this study, we explored the potential therapeutic effect of some of the most abundant non-euphoric compounds derived from the Cannabis sativa plant (or phytocannabinoids) including tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV), cannabidiol (CBD), cannabigerol (CBG), cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) and cannabigerolic acid (CBGA), by analysing their pharmacological activity on the viability of endogenous BM-MSCs as well as their ability to alter BM-MSC proliferation and differentiation into mature adipocytes.

We provide evidence that CBD, CBDA, CBGA and THCV (5 µM) increase the number of viable BM-MSCs; whereas only CBG (5 µM) and CBD (5 µM) alone or in their combination promote their maturation into adipocytes via distinct molecular mechanisms. These effects were revealed both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, phytocannabinoids prevented the insulin signalling impairment induced by palmitate in adipocytes differentiated from BM-MSCs.

Our study highlights phytocannabinoids as a potential novel pharmacological tool to regain control of functional adipose tissue in unregulated energy homeostasis often occurring in metabolic disorders including type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), aging and lipodystrophy.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32061773

“The promiscuous pharmacology of phytocannabinoids makes them viable candidates for new medicines for the treatment of metabolic syndromes through the simultaneous resolution of collective complications due to impaired development, maintenance, activity and function of the adipose tissue. Furthermore, phytocannabinoids are generally well tolerated in comparison to potent synthetic PPAR agonists, and combination treatments may further improve their efficacy at lower doses.”

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0006295220300873?via%3Dihub

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The Endocannabinoid System Alleviates Pain in a Murine Model of Cancer-Induced Bone Pain.

Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics: 372 (3)“Metastatic breast cancer is prevalent worldwide, and one of the most common sites of metastasis are long bones. Of patients with disease, the major symptom is pain, yet current medications fail to adequately result in analgesic efficacy and present major undesirable adverse effects.

In our study we investigate the potential of a novel monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) inhibitor, MJN110, in a murine model of cancer induced bone pain (CIBP). Literature has previously demonstrated that MAGL inhibitors function to increase the endogenous concentrations of 2-arachydonylglycerol, which then activate CB1 and CB2 receptors inhibiting inflammation and pain.

Together, these data support the application for MJN110 as a novel therapeutic for cancer induced bone pain.

SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Current standard of care for metastatic breast cancer pain is opioid-based therapies with adjunctive chemotherapy, which have highly addictive and other deleterious side effects. The need for effective, non-opioid based therapies is essential and harnessing the endogenous cannabinoid system is proving to be a new target to treat various types of pain conditions. We present a novel drug targeting the endogenous cannabinoid system that is effective at reducing pain in a mouse model of metastatic breast cancer to bone.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32054717

http://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/early/2020/02/13/jpet.119.262337

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Axially-Chiral Cannabinols: A New Platform for Cannabinoid-Inspired Drug Discovery.

Publication cover image“Phytocannabinoids (and synthetic analogs thereof) are gaining significant attention as promising leads in modern medicine. Considering this, new directions for the design of phytocannabinoid-inspired molecules is of immediate interest. In this regard, we have hypothesized that axially-chiral-cannabinols (ax-CBNs), unnatural and unknown isomers of cannabinol (CBN) may be valuable scaffolds for cannabinoid-inspired drug discovery. There are two main factors directing our interest to these scaffolds: (a) ax-CBNs would have ground-state three-dimensionality; ligand-receptor interactions can be more significant with complimentary 3D-topology, and (b) ax-CBNs at their core structure are biaryl molecules, generally attractive platforms for pharmaceutical development due to their ease of functionalization and stability. Herein we report a synthesis of ax-CBNs, examine physical properties experimentally and computationally, and perform a comparative analysis of ax-CBN and THC in mice behavioral studies.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32061146

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/cmdc.202000025

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