Cannabinoids Inhibit Glioma Cell Invasion by Down-regulating Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 Expression

Cancer Research: 68 (6)

“Cannabinoids, the active components of Cannabis sativa L. and their derivatives, inhibit tumor growth in laboratory animals by inducing apoptosis of tumor cells and impairing tumor angiogenesis.

It has also been reported that these compounds inhibit tumor cell spreading.

Here, we evaluated the effect of cannabinoids on matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression and its effect on tumor cell invasion.

Local administration of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major active ingredient of cannabis, down-regulated MMP-2 expression in gliomas generated in mice.

This cannabinoid-induced inhibition of MMP-2 expression in gliomas.

As MMP-2 up-regulation is associated with high progression and poor prognosis of gliomas and many other tumors, MMP-2 down-regulation constitutes a new hallmark of cannabinoid antitumoral activity.

As selective CB2 receptor activation to mice has been shown to inhibit the growth and angiogenesis of gliomas, skin carcinomas and melanomas, our observations further support the possibility of finding cannabinoid-based antitumoral strategies devoid of nondesired psychotropic side effects.”

http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/68/6/1945

 

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Preparation and characterization of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol-loaded biodegradable polymeric microparticles and their antitumoral efficacy on cancer cell lines.

“Cannabinoids present an interesting therapeutic potential as antiemetics, appetite stimulants in debilitating diseases (cancer, AIDS and multiple sclerosis), analgesics, and in the treatment of multiple sclerosis and cancer, among other conditions.

However, despite their high clinical potential, only few dosage forms are available to date.

In this paper, the development of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) biodegradable microspheres as an alternative delivery system for cannabinoid parenteral administration is proposed.

As THC has shown therapeutic potential as anticancer drug, the efficacy of the microspheres was tested on different cancer cell lines.

Interestingly, the microspheres were able to inhibit cancer cell proliferation during the nine-day study period.

All the above results suggest that the use of biodegradable microspheres would be a suitable alternative delivery system for THC administration.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23773072

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Targeting Cannabinoid Receptors in Brain Tumors

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“Cannabinoids, the active components of Cannabis sativa L., act in the body by mimicking endogenous substances — the endocannabinoids — that activate specific cell surface receptors.

Cannabinoids exert various palliative effects in cancer patients. In addition, cannabinoids inhibit the growth of different types of tumor cells, including glioma cells, in laboratory animals. They do so by modulating key cell signaling pathways, mostly the endoplasmic reticulum stress response, thereby inducing antitumoral actions such as the apoptotic death of tumor cells and the inhibition of tumor angiogenesis.

Of interest, cannabinoids seem to be selective antitumoral compounds as they kill glioma cells but not their nontransformed astroglial counterparts.

On the basis of these preclinical findings, a pilot clinical study of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) in patients with recurrent glioblastoma multiforme has been recently run. The fair safety profile of Δ9-THC, together with its possible growth-inhibiting action on tumor cells, may set the basis for future trials aimed at evaluating the potential antitumoral activity of cannabinoids.”

http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-0-387-74349-3_17

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The stress-regulated protein p8 mediates cannabinoid-induced apoptosis of tumor cells.

“One of the most exciting areas of current research in the cannabinoid field is the study of the potential application of these compounds as antitumoral drugs. Here, we describe the signaling pathway that mediates cannabinoid-induced apoptosis of tumor cells. By using a wide array of experimental approaches, we identify the stress-regulated protein p8 (also designated as candidate of metastasis 1) as an essential mediator of cannabinoid antitumoral action and show that p8 upregulation is dependent on de novo-synthesized ceramide. We also observe that p8 mediates its apoptotic effect via upregulation of the endoplasmic reticulum stress-related genes ATF-4, CHOP, and TRB3. Activation of this pathway may constitute a potential therapeutic strategy for inhibiting tumor growth.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16616335

“Marijuana has been used in medicine for many centuries, and nowadays there is a renaissance in the study of the therapeutic effects of cannabinoids. One of the most active areas of research in the cannabinoid field is the study of the potential antitumoral application of these drugs. Our results unravel the mechanism of cannabinoid antitumoral action by demonstrating the proapoptotic role of the stress protein p8 via its downstream targets ATF-4, CHOP, and TRB3.

The identification of this pathway may contribute to the design of therapeutic strategies for inhibiting tumor growth. In particular, our findings can help to improve the efficiency and selectivity of potential antitumoral therapies with cannabinoids.

Our results also support that cannabinoid treatment does not activate this pathway in nontransformed cells, in line with the belief that cannabinoid proapoptotic action is selective for tumor versus nontumor cells, and that cannabinoids act in a synergic fashion with ER stress inducers as well as with other antitumoral agents.

The identification of the p8-regulated pathway described here may contribute to the design of therapeutic strategies for inhibiting tumor growth. In particular, our findings can help to improve the efficiency and selectivity of a potential cannabinoid-based antitumoral therapy.”

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1535610806000857

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The endocannabinoid anandamide inhibits cholangiocarcinoma growth via activation of the noncanonical Wnt signaling pathway.

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“Cholangiocarcinomas are cancers that have poor prognosis and limited treatment options.

Marijuana and its derivatives have been used in medicine for many centuries.

…cannabinoids might be effective antitumoral agents because of their ability to inhibit the growth of various types of cancer cell lines in culture and in laboratory animals.

Indeed, we have recently demonstrated that the endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA) has antiproliferative effects on cholangiocarcinoma cell lines in vitro via a cannabinoid receptor-independent pathway involving the stabilization of lipid raft-membrane structures and the recruitment of death-receptor complexes into the lipid rafts.

Modulation of the endocannabinoid system may be important in cholangiocarcinoma treatment.

The antiproliferative actions of the noncanonical Wnt signaling pathway warrants further investigation to dissect the mechanism by which this may occur.

We propose that the development of novel therapeutic strategies aimed at modulating the endocannabinoid system, or mimicking the mode of action of AEA, would prove beneficial for the treatment of this devastating disease.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2604798/

 

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Opposing actions of endocannabinoids on cholangiocarcinoma growth: recruitment of Fas and Fas ligand to lipid rafts.

The Journal of Biological Chemistry

“Cholangiocarcinomas are devastating cancers of biliary origin with limited treatment options…

Marijuana and its derivatives have been used in medicine for many centuries, and presently there is an emerging renaissance in the study of the therapeutic effects of cannabinoids…

In addition, cannabinoids might be effective antitumoral agents because of their ability to inhibit the growth of various types of cancer cell lines in culture and in laboratory animals.

Modulation of the endocannabinoid system is being targeted to develop possible therapeutic strategies for a number of cancers; therefore, we evaluated the effects of the two major endocannabinoids, anandamide and 2-arachidonylglycerol, on numerous cholangiocarcinoma cell lines…

These findings suggest that modulation of the endocannabinoid system may be a target for the development of possible therapeutic strategies for the treatment of this devastating cancer.

Consistent with our observation that AEA has antiproliferative and proapoptotic properties, cannabinoids of various origins (endogenous, plant-derived, or synthetic analogues) have been shown to suppress cancer cell growth in vitro as well as in vivo.

In conclusion, we have clearly demonstrated opposing actions of the endocannabinoids AEA and 2-AG on cholangiocarcinoma cell proliferation and have shown that these actions are via a cannabinoid receptor-independent but lipid raft-mediated pathway. Furthermore we have shown that the antiproliferative/proapoptotic actions of AEA are mediated via an accumulation of ceramide and the recruitment of the Fas death receptor into the lipid rafts. Cholangiocarcinoma has a very poor prognosis and survival rate; therefore we propose that the development of novel therapeutic strategies aimed at modulating the endocannabinoid system or mimicking the mode of action of AEA would prove beneficial for the treatment of this devastating disease.”

http://www.jbc.org/content/282/17/13098.long

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Role of Cannabinoid Receptor CB2 in HER2 Pro-oncogenic Signaling in Breast Cancer.

“Pharmacological activation of cannabinoid receptors elicits antitumoral responses in different cancer models. However, the biological role of these receptors in tumor physio-pathology is still unknown…

Our findings reveal an unprecedented role of CB2 as a pivotal regulator of HER2 pro-oncogenic signaling in breast cancer, and they suggest that CB2 may be a biomarker with prognostic value in these tumors.”

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Targeting CB2-GPR55 Receptor Heteromers Modulates Cancer Cell Signaling.

“The G protein-coupled receptors CB2 (CB2R) and GPR55 are overexpressed in cancer cells and human tumors. As a modulation of GPR55 activity by cannabinoids has been suggested, we analyzed whether this receptor participates in cannabinoid effects on cancer cells.

Here, we show that CB2R and GPR55 form heteromers in cancer cells, that these structures possess unique signaling properties, and that modulation of these heteromers can modify the antitumoral activity of cannabinoids in vivo.

These findings unveil the existence of previously unknown signaling platforms that help explain the complex behavior of cannabinoids and may constitute new targets for therapeutic intervention in oncology.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24942731

http://www.thctotalhealthcare.com/category/cancer/

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Cannabinoid CB1 Receptor Is Downregulated in Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma

“Several studies in cell cultures and in animal models have demonstrated that cannabinoids have important antitumoral properties… many of these effects are mediated through cannabinoid (CB) receptors CB1 and CB2…

The obtained data suggest a possible implication of the endocannabinoid system in renal carcinogenesis.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2989249/

 

 

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Cannabinoids induce glioma stem-like cell differentiation and inhibit gliomagenesis.

“Glioma stem-like cells constitute one of the potential origins of gliomas, and therefore, their elimination is an essential factor for the development of efficient therapeutic strategies.

Cannabinoids are known to exert an antitumoral action on gliomas that relies on at least two mechanisms: induction of apoptosis of transformed cells and inhibition of tumor angiogenesis…

The discovery of an endogenous cannabinoid system, together with the great improvement in our understanding of the signaling mechanisms responsible for cannabinoid actions, has fostered the interest in the potential therapeutic applications of cannabinoids.

Several studies have demonstrated a significant antitumoral action of cannabinoid ligands in animal models. Thus, cannabinoid administration to nude mice curbs the growth of different tumors, including gliomas…

Cannabinoids are known to exert an antitumoral action against gliomas…

Overall, our results demonstrate that cannabinoids target glioma stem-like cells, promote their differentiation, and inhibit gliomagenesis, thus giving further support to their potential use in the management of malignant gliomas.

In conclusion, our results demonstrate the action of cannabinoids on glioma stem-like cells and thus may open new avenues for cannabinoid-based antitumoral strategies.”

http://www.jbc.org/content/282/9/6854.long

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