Probing the antioxidant activity of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol in Cannabis sativa extracts.

“Herein, we report the antioxidant activity of cannabidiol (CBD) and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in pure and mixed solutions at different ratios, as well as of six different Cannabis sativa extracts containing various proportions of CBD and THC by using spectrophotometric (reducing power assay, 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hypochlorous acid (HOCl) scavenging assays) and electrochemical methods (cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry).

The isolated cannabinoids, the different stoichiometric ratios of CBD and THC, and the natural extracts proved to have remarkable antioxidant properties in all the methods employed in this work.

The antioxidant activity of CBD and THC was compared against that of the well-defined antioxidants such as ascorbic acid (AA), resveratrol (Resv) and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). Clear evidence of the synergistic and antagonistic effects between CBD and THC regarding to their antioxidant activities was observed.

Moreover, a good correlation was obtained between the optical and electrochemical methods, which proved that the reported experimental procedures can easily be adapted to determine the antioxidant activity of extracts from various Cannabis sativa species and related compounds.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31318364

https://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2019/AN/C9AN00890J#!divAbstract

Graphical abstract: Probing the antioxidant activity of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol in Cannabis sativa extracts

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Cannabis for restless legs syndrome: a report of six patients

Sleep Medicine
“Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a chronic and sometimes severe sensorimotor disorder of still unclear pathophysiology. Usually symptoms respond well to dopamine agonists (DA), opiates, or anticonvulsants, used either alone or in combination. However, a subset of patients remains refractory to medical therapy, and serious side effects such as augmentation and impulse control disorder have been observed with DA. We present six patients’ spontaneous reports of a remarkable and total remission of RLS symptoms following cannabis use.”
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Cannabimovone, a Cannabinoid with a Rearranged Terpenoid Skeleton from Hemp

“An investigation of the polar fractions from a nonpsychotropic variety of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) afforded cannabimovone, a polar cannabinoid with a rearranged 2(34) abeo-terpenoid skeleton, biogenetically originating from the intramolecular aldolization of a 2′,3′-seco-menthanyl precursor.

The structure of cannabimovone was elucidated by spectroscopic analysis, whereas attempts to mimic its biogenetic derivation from cannabidiol gave only anhydrocannabimovone, the intramolecular oxy-Michael adduct of the crotonized version of the elusive natural products.

Biological evaluation of cannabimovone against metabotropic (CB1, CB2) and ionotropic (TRPs) cannabinoid receptors showed a significant activity only for ionotropic receptors, especially TRPV1, whereas anhydrocannabimovone exhibited strong activity at both ionotropic and metabotropic cannabinoid receptors.

Overall, the biological profile of anhydrocannabimovone was somewhat similar to that of THC, suggesting a remarkable tolerance to constitutional and configurational changes.”

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ejoc.200901464/abstract

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Differential effectiveness of selected non-psychotropic phytocannabinoids on human sebocyte functions implicates their introduction in dry/seborrheic skin and acne treatment.

“Acne is a common skin disease characterized by elevated sebum production and inflammation of the sebaceous glands.

We have previously shown that a non-psychotropic phytocannabinoid ((-)-cannabidiol [CBD]) exerted complex anti-acne effects by normalizing “pro-acne agents”-induced excessive sebaceous lipid production, reducing proliferation and alleviating inflammation in human SZ95 sebocytes.

Therefore, in the current study we aimed to explore the putative anti-acne effects of further non-psychotropic phytocannabinoids ((-)-cannabichromene [CBC], (-)-cannabidivarin [CBDV], (-)-cannabigerol [CBG], (-)-cannabigerovarin [CBGV] and (-)-Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabivarin [THCV]).

Viability and proliferation of human SZ95 sebocytes were investigated by MTT- and CyQUANT-assays; cell death and lipid synthesis were monitored by DilC1 (5)-SYTOX Green labelling and Nile Red staining, respectively. Inflammatory responses were investigated by monitoring expressions of selected cytokines upon lipopolysaccharide treatment (RT-qPCR, ELISA). Up to 10 μM, the phytocannabinoids only negligibly altered viability of the sebocytes, whereas high doses (≥50 μM) induced apoptosis.

Interestingly, basal sebaceous lipid synthesis was differentially modulated by the substances: CBC and THCV suppressed it, CBDV had only minor effects, whereas CBG and CBGV increased it.

Importantly, CBC, CBDV and THCV significantly reduced arachidonic acid (AA)-induced “acne-like” lipogenesis.

Moreover, THCV suppressed proliferation, and all phytocannabinoids exerted remarkable anti-inflammatory actions.

Our data suggest that CBG and CBGV may have potential in the treatment of dry-skin syndrome, whereas CBC, CBDV and especially THCV show promise to become highly efficient, novel anti-acne agents.

Moreover, based on their remarkable anti-inflammatory actions, phytocannabinoids could be efficient, yet safe novel tools in the management of cutaneous inflammations.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27094344

http://www.thctotalhealthcare.com/category/acne/

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Integrating cannabis into clinical cancer care.

“Cannabis species have been used as medicine for thousands of years; only since the 1940s has the plant not been widely available for medical use.

However, an increasing number of jurisdictions are making it possible for patients to obtain the botanical for medicinal use.

For the cancer patient, cannabis has a number of potential benefits, especially in the management of symptoms. Cannabis is useful in combatting anorexia, chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, pain, insomnia, and depression.

Cannabis might be less potent than other available antiemetics, but for some patients, it is the only agent that works, and it is the only antiemetic that also increases appetite.

Inhaled cannabis is more effective than placebo in ameliorating peripheral neuropathy in a number of conditions, and it could prove useful in chemotherapy-induced neuropathy.

A pharmacokinetic interaction study of vaporized cannabis in patients with chronic pain on stable doses of sustained-release opioids demonstrated no clinically significant change in plasma opiates, while suggesting the possibility of synergistic analgesia.

Aside from symptom management, an increasing body of in vitro and animal-model studies supports a possible direct anticancer effect of cannabinoids by way of a number of different mechanisms involving apoptosis, angiogenesis, and inhibition of metastasis.

Despite an absence of clinical trials, abundant anecdotal reports that describe patients having remarkable responses to cannabis as an anticancer agent, especially when taken as a high-potency orally ingested concentrate, are circulating.

Human studies should be conducted to address critical questions related to the foregoing effects.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27022315

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Dronabinol has preferential antileukemic activity in acute lymphoblastic and myeloid leukemia with lymphoid differentiation patterns

Biomed Central logo

“It has been previously demonstrated in several cancer models, that Dronabinol (THC) may have anti-tumor activity – however, controversial data exists for acute leukemia. We have anecdotal evidence that THC may have contributed to disease control in a patient with acute undifferentiated leukemia.

To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the antileukemic efficacy of THC in several leukemia cell lines and native leukemia blasts cultured ex vivo.

We here reveal a novel aspect of dronabinol, a cannabinoid derivative, which displays remarkable antiproliferative as well as proapoptotic efficacy in a distinct leukemia patient cohort – in vitro and in ex vivo native leukemia blasts. It has been previously reported that cannabinoids display anticancer properties. However, due to legal issues the use and exploration of such agents is highly limited in many countries.

Importantly, we demonstrate that antileukemic concentrations are achievable in vivo.

Our study provides rigorous data to support clinical evaluation of THC as a low-toxic therapy option in a well defined subset of acute leukemia patients.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26775260

http://bmccancer.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12885-015-2029-8

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Protective effects of cannabidiol on lesion-induced intervertebral disc degeneration.

“Disc degeneration is a multifactorial process that involves hypoxia, inflammation, neoinnervation, accelerated catabolism, and reduction in water and glycosaminoglycan content…

Cannabidiol (CBD) is the major nonpsychotropic phytocannabinoid of Cannabis sativa (up to 40% of Cannabis extracts). Contrary to most cannabinoids, CBD does not produce psychotomimetic or cognitive effects. Interesting, in the last years it has been suggest that CBD produces a plethora of others pharmacological effects, including antioxidant, neuroprotective, anti-proliferative, anti-anxiety, hypnotic and antiepileptic, anti-nausea, anti-ischemic, anti-hyperalgesic, and anti-inflammatory…

The present study investigated the effects of cannabidiol intradiscal injection in the coccygeal intervertebral disc degeneration induced by the needle puncture model using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histological analyses…

 Cannabidiol significantly attenuated the effects of disc injury induced by the needle puncture. Considering that cannabidiol presents an extremely safe profile and is currently being used clinically, these results suggest that this compound could be useful in the treatment of intervertebral disc degeneration.

 In summary our study revealed anti-degenerative effects of intradiscal microinjection of CBD 120 nmol. CBD represents one of the most promising candidates present in the Cannabis sativa plant for clinical use due to its remarkable lack of cognitive or psychotomimetic actions.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4269422/

http://www.thctotalhealthcare.com/category/spinal-cord-injury/

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Cannabis Extracts for Treating Cancer

“Cannabis Extract Medicine and Disease. Cannabis extract medicine, also known as “hemp oil” when referring to the type pioneered by Rick Simpson, is a concentrated formulation of cannabis that is ingested orally. By eating large quantities of the oil over a three to six month period, nearly any disease you can imagine can either be cured or completely controlled. This is possible because cannabis medicine works fundamentally through the endocannabinoid system, the superregulatory system of our bodies that maintains homeostasis in the other systems.

You can see the reality of cannabis medicine’s effectiveness in all the things that smoking it is good for. It is widely known and observable that people with cancer, chronic pain, inflammatory conditions, and other conditions smoke cannabis with remarkable efficacy. When you think about that, it’s pretty crazy that setting something on fire and inhaling the resulting smoke (thus getting the cannabinoids in a low-concentration form through the lungs, which are not meant to ingest things) works better than many expensive pharmaceuticals. But with cannabis extract oil, there are two primary differences. First, the cannabinoids are much more concentrated than with smoking, so it has a more powerful effect on your system. Second, the oil is ingested, not smoked, meaning it is digested through the system that is meant to absorb nutrients. Essentially, you are feeding your body the pure molecules that enable it to stay balanced, and since all disease is an imbalance of some kind, this medicine is effective against nearly anything. At least, that’s what the bulk of science and real experience show.

The prohibition of cannabis medicine is a crime against humanity, and as more human trials are conducted into the efficacy of cannabis extracts, the truth will be revealed.

The THC Molecule

Scientific Evidence

There are literally hundreds upon hundreds of scientific studies showing that cannabinoids like tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), as well as whole plant formulations, are effective against nearly any disease you can think of. LetFreedomGrow hosts an incredibly extensive list of peer-reviewed scientific studies and news reports about cannabis medicine. Here are just a few conditions that science has proven cannabinoids are therapeutically active against:

  • Arthritis
  • Cancer
  • Crohn’s
  • Diabetes
  • Fibromyalgia
  • Multiple sclerosis
  • Parkinson’s”

More: https://hubpages.com/health/Hemp-Oil-Cancer-Cure

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Cognitive damage halted by THC in marijuana, Israeli reseachers discover

“Marijuana is a well-known recreational drug with much of its notoriety and controversy arise from its use as a psychoactive drug, however, scientific research into the therapeutic value has increased within the last 10 years revealing cannabis’ remarkable capability to combat disease.”
 
Medical Marijuana  
 
 
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Marijuana Helps Control Diabetes, Promotes Good Cholesterol, Leads to Lower Waist Size, and Lowers Bladder Cancer Risk, New Studies Show

“Smoking marijuana has “remarkable” effect on diabetic problems and may lower risk of getting the disease, a study published on Wednesday states

pot-rx-bottle-nt.jpg

“This news comes a few days after a presentation at the annual conference of the American Urological Association that links heavy pot use to a much lower risk of bladder cancer…The more pot, the better: Researchers found that people who used marijuana more than 500 times a year were better off as far as bladder-cancer risk than those who used it infrequently.Whatever problems marijuana may cause, diabetes and bladder cancer apparently aren’t among them.”

 More: http://blogs.phoenixnewtimes.com/valleyfever/2013/05/marijuana_helps_control_diabet.php

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