Cannabidiol Limits T Cell–Mediated Chronic Autoimmune Myocarditis: Implications to Autoimmune Disorders and Organ Transplantation

Logo of molmed

“Cannabidiol (CBD) is a nonpsychoactive ingredient of marijuana (Cannabis sativa).

Collectively, our study demonstrates that CBD treatment markedly attenuates autoimmune myocarditis and improves myocardial dysfunction and heart failure primarily by its antiinflammatory and antifibrotic effects.

These results, coupled with the proven safety of CBD in human clinical trials and its current orphan drug approval by the FDA for different neurological disorders, suggest that it has tremendous therapeutic potential in the therapy of myocarditis with different etiologies and various autoimmune disorders. The latter is also supported by beneficial effects of CBD in preventing graft versus host disease after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation in a recent phase II human study, as well as in mice with arthritis. Attenuation of the T cell–mediated injury by CBD also suggests that it may have therapeutic utility in management of organ transplantation/rejection.

In conclusion, CBD may represent a promising novel treatment for managing autoimmune myocarditis and possibly other autoimmune disorders and organ transplantation.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26772776

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5004721/

http://static.smallworldlabs.com/molmedcommunity/content/pdfstore/16_007_Lee.pdf

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

History of marijuana use does not affect outcomes on the liver transplant waitlist.

Image result for transplantation journal

“Data are limited on marijuana use and its impact on liver transplant (LT) waitlist outcomes.

We aimed to assess the risk of waitlist mortality/delisting and likelihood of LT among prior marijuana users, and to determine the prevalence and factors associated with marijuana use.

Unlike illicit drug use, marijuana use was not associated with worse outcomes on the LT waitlist.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29319619

https://insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00007890-900000000-96711

https://journals.lww.com/transplantjournal/Abstract/onlinefirst/History_of_marijuana_use_does_not_affect_outcomes.96711.aspx

“Do Cannabinoids have a therapeutic role in transplantation? Transplantation is one critical area of medicine that requires the use of immunosuppressants. Cannabinoids have emerged as powerful drug candidates for the treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases due to their immunosuppressive properties.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2923447/
“The history of donor cannabis smoking does not appear to affect early and mid-term outcomes after lung transplantation (LTx) and potentially improve the donor pool. As it does not seem to negatively affect the outcomes after LTx, it should not be per se considered a contraindication for lung donation.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28077504
THC In Marijuana Delays Organ Transplant Rejection In Mice. A new study suggests the active ingredient in marijuana delays the rejection of incompatible organs in mice.” http://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/thc-marijuana-may-delay-organ-transplant-rejection/
“Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol attenuates allogeneic host-versus-graft response and delays skin graft rejection through activation of cannabinoid receptor 1 and induction of myeloid-derived suppressor cells” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4541500/
Cannabidiol Limits T Cell-Mediated Chronic Autoimmune Myocarditis: Implications to Autoimmune Disorders and Organ Transplantation. CBD may represent a promising novel treatment for management of autoimmune myocarditis and possibly other autoimmune disorders, and organ transplantation.” http://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC5004721/
“Could CANNABIS help transplant patients? Drug ‘delays rejection of organs by slowing the immune system’s attack'” http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-3279752/Could-CANNABIS-help-transplant-patients-Drug-delays-rejection-organs-slowing-immune-s-attack.html
Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Cannabis, cannabinoids, and health.

Logo of diaclinneuro

“Cannabis does have therapeutic properties for certain indications.”   https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29302228

“The legislative policies that have been established to reduce the risks in relation to cannabis have long represented an obstacle to research concerning medical cannabis use. Improved knowledge of the endocannabinoid system and of exocannabinoids has proven that cannabis may have significant therapeutic effects.”  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5741114/

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Cannabidiol for drug-resistant seizures in the Dravet syndrome

Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health

“Dravet syndrome (severe myoclonic epilepsy of infancy) is characterised by difficult-to-control seizures. Media reports and small clinical trials suggest that cannabidiol, a non-toxic extract of cannabis, can reduce seizure frequency. A recent multicentre randomised controlled trial of 120 children aged 2–18 years with Dravet syndrome supports its efficacy.

Over a 14-week period, children taking 20 mg/kg/day of cannabidiol had a 22.8% reduction (95% confidence interval 5.4–41.1) in seizure frequency compared to a 4-week baseline period. Median convulsive frequency fell from 12.4 to 5.9 per month on cannabidiol, while the placebo group had no change from baseline. No attempt was made to measure non-convulsive seizures (e.g. absences). Subjects took a median of three other anti-convulsant drugs during the trial. Adverse effects were common with cannabidiol, particularly somnolence, fatigue, loss of appetite, vomiting and diarrhoea. Eight patients in the cannabidiol group withdrew compared to one in the placebo group.

Nevertheless, 62% of caregivers in the cannabidiol group felt the patient’s overall condition had improved, using a validated global score, compared to 34% in the placebo group (P = 0.02). Unfortunately, the high rate of adverse events may have led to widespread loss of caregiver blinding, and the study is relatively short term. Nevertheless, the reduction in seizures is clinically relevant, and further longer-term randomised controlled trials are clearly warranted. ” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29314377  http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jpc.13803/full

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Cannabis Use is Associated with Lower Odds of Prescription Opioid Analgesic Use Among HIV-Infected Individuals with Chronic Pain.

Publication Cover

“Chronic pain is common in the United States and prescribed opioid analgesics use for noncancer pain has increased dramatically in the past two decades, possibly accounting for the current opioid addiction epidemic. Co-morbid drug use in those prescribed opioid analgesics is common, but there are few data on polysubstance use patterns.

We explored patterns of use of cigarette, alcohol, and illicit drugs in HIV-infected people with chronic pain who were prescribed opioid analgesics.

Almost half of the sample of people with HIV and chronic pain reported current prescribed opioid analgesic use (N = 372, 47.1%). Illicit drug use was common (N = 505, 63.9%), and cannabis was the most commonly used illicit substance (N = 311, 39.4%).

In multivariate analyses, only cannabis use was significantly associated with lower odds of prescribed opioid analgesic use (adjusted odds ratio = 0.57; 95% confidence interval: 0.38-0.87).

Conclusions/Importance: Our data suggest that new medical cannabis legislation might reduce the need for opioid analgesics for pain management, which could help to address adverse events associated with opioid analgesic use.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29338578

http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10826084.2017.1416408?journalCode=isum20

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Medical Cannabis, a Beneficial High in Treatment of Blepharospasm? An Early Observation.

Publication Cover

“The objective of this study was to observe the effect of medical cannabis in benign essential blepharospasm (BEB) as an adjunct to botulinum toxin.

Three out of four patients (75%) reported symptomatic improvement.

Medical cannabis has made great strides as a treatment modality for symptom relief for many disease processes, including muscle spasms related to multiple sclerosis. Medical cannabis is an accepted therapy for muscle spastic disorders.

We believe that this observational case series provides a backdrop to exploring prospective, double-masked studies to determine the therapeutic effect of cannabis for patients suffering from BEB” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5764009/

http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01658107.2017.1318150?journalCode=ioph20

“Blepharospasm is any abnormal contraction or twitch of the eyelid” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blepharospasm

“Cannabinoid agonists in the treatment of blepharospasm – A case report study.  This case study demonstrates that the therapy with a cannabinoid agonist may provide a novel tool in the treatment of blepharospasm and maybe of other multifactorial related movement disorders.”  http://www.nel.edu/userfiles/articlesnew/NEL251204A03.pdf

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Cannabis use is associated with reduced prevalence of progressive stages of alcoholic liver disease.

Liver International

 

“Abusive alcohol use has well-established health risks including causing liver disease (ALD) characterized by alcoholic steatosis (AS), steatohepatitis (AH), fibrosis, cirrhosis (AC) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Strikingly, a significant number of individuals who abuse alcohol also use Cannabis, which has seen increased legalization globally. While cannabis has demonstrated anti-inflammatory properties, its combined use with alcohol and the development of liver disease remains unclear.

To determine the effects of cannabis use on the incidence of liver disease in individuals who abuse alcohol.

We analyzed the 2014 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project – Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) discharge records of patients 18years and older, who had a past or current history of abusive alcohol use(n=319,514). Using the International Classification of Disease, Ninth Edition codes, we studied the four distinct phases of progressive ALD with respect to three cannabisexposure groups: non-cannabis-users (90.39%), non-dependent-cannabis-users (8.26%) and dependent cannabis users (1.36%). We accounted for the complex survey sampling methodology and estimated the adjusted odds ratio (AOR) for developing AS, AH, AC and HCC with respect to cannabis use (SAS 9.4).

 

Our study revealed that among alcohol users, individuals who additionally use cannabis (dependent and non-dependent cannabis use) showed significantly lower odds of developing AS, AH, AC and HCC (AOR: 0.55[0.48-0.64], 0.57[0.53-0.61], 0.45[0.43-0.48] & 0.62[0.51-0.76]). Further, dependent users had significantly lower odds than non-dependent users for developing liver disease.

CONCLUSIONS:

Our findings suggest that cannabis use is associated with reduced incidence of liver disease in alcoholics.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29341392

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/liv.13696/abstract

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Benefits of VCE-003.2, a cannabigerol quinone derivative, against inflammation-driven neuronal deterioration in experimental Parkinson’s disease: possible involvement of different binding sites at the PPARγ receptor.

Image result for JNI journal of neuroinflammation

“Neuroprotection with cannabinoids in Parkinson’s disease (PD) has been afforded predominantly with antioxidant or anti-inflammatory cannabinoids. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties of VCE-003.2, a quinone derivative of the non-psychotrophic phytocannabinoid cannabigerol (CBG), which may derive its activity at the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ). The compound is also an antioxidant.

We have demonstrated that VCE-003.2 is neuroprotective against inflammation-driven neuronal damage in an in vivo model of PD and in in vitro cellular models of neuroinflammation. Such effects might involve PPARγ receptors, although in silico and in vitro experiments strongly suggest that VCE-003.2 targets PPARγ by acting through two binding sites at the LBP, one that is sensitive to T0070907 (canonical binding site) and other that is not affected by this PPARγ antagonist (alternative binding site).”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29338785

https://jneuroinflammation.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12974-018-1060-5

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

The therapeutic potential of targeting the peripheral endocannabinoid/CB1 receptor system.

European Journal of Internal Medicine

“Endocannabinoids (eCBs) are internal lipid mediators recognized by the cannabinoid-1 and -2 receptors (CB1R and CB2R, respectively), which also mediate the different physiological effects of marijuana. The endocannabinoid system, consisting of eCBs, their receptors, and the enzymes involved in their biosynthesis and degradation, is present in a vast number of peripheral organs. In this review we describe the role of the eCB/CB1R system in modulating the metabolism in several peripheral organs. We assess how eCBs, via activating the CB1R, contribute to obesity and regulate food intake. In addition, we describe their roles in modulating liver and kidney functions, as well as bone remodeling and mass. Special importance is given to emphasizing the efficacy of the recently developed peripherally restricted CB1R antagonists, which were pre-clinically tested in the management of energy homeostasis, and in ameliorating both obesity- and diabetes-induced metabolic complications.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29336868

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Anti-Inflammatory Drugs and Herbs with Special Emphasis on Herbal Medicines for Countering Inflammatory Diseases and Disorders – A Review.

“Diseases with inflammatory etiopathology have increased in incidence in recent times. Drugs used for therapeutic management of such inflammatory diseases are relieving the ailment but at the same time also countering serious life-threatening consequences. Moreover, they are costly and rarely available at all places. In this context, research and development on medicinal herbs have opened a new era in the prophylactic and therapeutic management of inflammatory diseases.

OBJECTIVE:

To highlight the importance of anti-inflammatory medicine-synthetic drugs and natural herbs, their constituents, mechanism of action, benefits, side effects and future prospects. The overall aim is to provide better health services to patiens regardless of their background on equality basis.

RESULTS:

Anti-inflammatory herbs have proven beneficial by combating inflammatory responses that lead to severe abnormality in body systems. Inflammation though a protective response to infection or injury and may result in pathological outcome when aggravated or of severe degree thus needs an early intervention for proper resolution. Medicinal plants or their constituents are considered beneficial due to the properties i.e., satisfactory potency, ease of availability, cheapness, less or no side effects, safer and efficient as compared to the synthetic counterparts. These medicinal herbs contain phytoconstituents that can prevent undesirable inflammatory processes and also posses anti-inflammatory activity. Steroids, glycosides, phenolics, flavonoids, alkaloids, polysaccharides, terpenoids, cannabinoids, fatty acids are common phytoconstituents present in these plants. Different mechanisms have been explored for the anti-inflammatory action of these active ingredients. They may synergize the anti-inflammatory pathway enzymes, factors, proteins or interfere with these in the inflammatory pathway like lipooxygenases, cyclooxygenases, tumor necrosis factors, interleukins, prostaglandin, nitric oxide, mitogen-activated protein, nuclear factor, etc. Considering all the above-mentioned factors, further research from molecular to cellular level will enable a better understanding of the mechanisms. Common anti-inflammatory herbal plants are Curcuma longa, Zingiber officinale, Rosmarinus officinalis, Borago officinalis, Urtica dioica, Uncaria tomentosa, Vaccinium myrtillus, Olea europaea and much more. They are believed to be without side effects unlike the chemical counterparts or synthetic anti-inflammatory agents e.g. steroids, nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs, and immunosuppressant used for controlling and suppressing inflammatory crisis. A proper phytochemical, pharmacological and physiological evaluation will enable their safe and effective use in inflammatory conditions. Many of these anti-inflammatory drugs and herbal preparations have been patented with some under consideration.

CONCLUSION:

Natural herbs are safe, effective and better options as anti-inflammatory agents than synthetic ones. The phytoconstituents are as effective with the comparable mechanism of action as synthetic molecules. Future research should focus on molecular mechanisms of different beneficial applications of these herbal plants in various diseases. Recent patents on anti-inflammatory drugs and herbal plants have been covered which provide insight into the current status and future prospects in this field.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29336271  http://www.eurekaselect.com/159064/article

“Cannabinoids as novel anti-inflammatory drugs”  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2828614/

“Cannabinoids for the treatment of inflammation.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17520866

“Cannabis-based drugs have been shown to be effective in inflammatory diseases.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29110674

http://www.thctotalhealthcare.com/tag/anti-inflammatory/

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous