β-Caryophyllene/Hydroxypropyl-β-Cyclodextrin Inclusion Complex Improves Cognitive Deficits in Rats with Vascular Dementia through the Cannabinoid Receptor Type 2 -Mediated Pathway.

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“This work was conducted to prepare β-caryophyllene-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex (HPβCD/BCP) and investigate its effects and mechanisms on cognitive deficits in vascular dementia (VD) rats.

Overall, the findings demonstrated the protective effects of HPβCD/BCP against cognitive deficits induced by chronic cerebral ischemia and suggested the potential of HPβCD/BCP in the therapy of vascular dementia in the future.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28154534

“β-caryophyllene (BCP) is a common constitute of the essential oils of numerous spice, food plants and major component in Cannabis.”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23138934

“Cyclodextrin” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyclodextrin

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Cannabidiol attenuates OGD/R-induced damage by enhancing mitochondrial bioenergetics and modulating glucose metabolism via pentose-phosphate pathway in hippocampal neurons.

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“Deficient bioenergetics and diminished redox conservation have been implicated in the development of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury.

In this study, the mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effects of cannabidiol (CBD), a nonpsychotropic compound derived from Cannabis sativa with FDA-approved antiepilepsy properties, were studied in vitro using an oxygen-glucose-deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R) model in a mouse hippocampal neuronal cell line.

This study is the first to document the neuroprotective effects of CBD against OGD/R insult, which depend in part on attenuating oxidative stress, enhancing mitochondrial bioenergetics, and modulating glucose metabolism via the pentose-phosphate pathway, thus preserving both energy and the redox balance.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28110213

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Cannabis, Tobacco, Alcohol Use, and the Risk of Early Stroke

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“Current knowledge on cannabis use in relation to stroke is based almost exclusively on clinical reports. By using a population-based cohort, we aimed to find out whether there was an association between cannabis use and early-onset stroke, when accounting for the use of tobacco and alcohol.

Conclusions—We found no evident association between cannabis use in young adulthood and stroke, including strokes before 45 years of age. Tobacco smoking, however, showed a clear, dose–response shaped association with stroke.”

http://stroke.ahajournals.org/content/early/2016/12/27/STROKEAHA.116.015565

 “New Study: Cigarettes Tied To Increased Stroke Risk But Not Marijuana”  http://www.weednews.co/new-study-cigarettes-tied-to-increased-stroke-risk-but-not-marijuana/
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Cannabidiol reduces neuroinflammation and promotes neuroplasticity and functional recovery after brain ischemia.

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“This study investigated the effects of cannabidiol (CBD), a non-psychotomimetic phytochemical present in Cannabis sativa, on the cognitive and emotional impairments induced by bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) in mice.

Using a multi-tiered behavioral testing battery during 21days, we found that BCCAO mice exhibited long-lasting functional deficits reflected by increase in anxiety-like behavior (day 9), memory impairments (days 12-18) and despair-like behavior (day 21).

Short-term CBD 10mg/kg treatment prevented the cognitive and emotional impairments, attenuated hippocampal neurodegeneration and white matter (WM) injury, and reduced glial response that were induced by BCCAO.

In addition, ischemic mice treated with CBD exhibited an increase in the hippocampal brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein levels.

CBD also stimulated neurogenesis and promoted dendritic restructuring in the hippocampus of BCCAO animals.

Collectively, the present results demonstrate that short-term CBD treatment results in global functional recovery in ischemic mice and impacts multiple and distinct targets involved in the pathophysiology of brain ischemic injury.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27889412

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Anti-excitotoxic effects of cannabidiol are partly mediated by enhancement of NCX2 and NCX3 expression in animal model of cerebral ischemia.

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“Excitotoxicity and imbalance of sodium and calcium homeostasis trigger pathophysiologic processes in cerebral ischemia which can accelerate neuronal death.

Neuroprotective role of cannabidiol (CBD), one of the main non-psychoactive phytocannabinoids of the cannabis plant, has attracted attention of many researchers in the neurodegenerative diseases studies.

The present investigation was designed to determine whether cannabidiol can alleviate the severity of ischemic damages and if it is able to exert its anti-excitotoxic effects through sodium and calcium regulation.

The present results indicate that administration of cannabidiol (100 and 200 ng/rat) in the MCAO-induced cerebral ischemia caused a remarkable reduction in neurological deficit, infarction, brain edema, and BBB permeability in comparison with the vehicle group. Up-regulation of NCX2 and NCX3 in cannabidiol-received groups was also observed.

These findings support the view that the reduction of ischemic injuries elicited by cannabidiol can be at least partly due to the enhancement of NCX protein expression and its cerebro-protective role in those cerebral territories supplied by MCA.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27856160

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Protection against septic shock and suppression of tumor necrosis factor alpha and nitric oxide production by dexanabinol (HU-211), a nonpsychotropic cannabinoid.

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“Dexanabinol, HU-211, a synthetic cannabinoid devoid of psychotropic effects, improves neurological outcome in models of brain trauma, ischemia and meningitis.

Recently, HU-211 was found to inhibit brain tumor necrosis factor (TNFalpha) production after head injury. In the present study, we demonstrate the ability of HU-211 to suppress TNFalpha production and to rescue mice and rats from endotoxic shock after LPS (Escherichia coli 055:B5) inoculation.

Administration of LPS to Sprague-Dawley rats resulted in a 30% reduction in the mean arterial blood pressure within 30 min, which persisted for 3 hr. HU-211, given 2 to 3 min before LPS, completely abolished the typical hypotensive response. Furthermore, the drug also markedly suppressed in vitro TNFalpha production and nitric oxide generation (by >90%) by both murine peritoneal macrophages and rat alveolar macrophage cell line exposed to LPS.

HU-211 may, therefore, have therapeutic implications in the treatment of TNFalpha-mediated pathologies.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9353414

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Delayed treatment with cannabidiol has a cerebroprotective action via a cannabinoid receptor-independent myeloperoxidase-inhibiting mechanism.

“We examined the neuroprotective mechanism of cannabidiol, non-psychoactive component of marijuana, on the infarction in a 4 h mouse middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion model in comparison with Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta(9)-THC).

Both pre- and post-ischemic treatment with cannabidiol resulted in potent and long-lasting neuroprotection, whereas only pre-ischemic treatment with Delta(9)-THC reduced the infarction.

Unlike Delta(9)-THC, cannabidiol did not affect the excess release of glutamate in the cortex after occlusion.

Cannabidiol suppressed the decrease in cerebral blood flow by the failure of cerebral microcirculation after reperfusion and inhibited MPO activity in neutrophils.

Furthermore, the number of MPO-immunopositive cells was reduced in the ipsilateral hemisphere in cannabidiol-treated group.

Cannabidiol provides potent and long-lasting neuroprotection through an anti-inflammatory CB(1) receptor-independent mechanism, suggesting that cannabidiol will have a palliative action and open new therapeutic possibilities for treating cerebrovascular disorders.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17437545

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Cannabidiol prevents a post-ischemic injury progressively induced by cerebral ischemia via a high-mobility group box1-inhibiting mechanism.

“We examined the cerebroprotective mechanism of cannabidiol, the non-psychoactive component of marijuana, against infarction in a 4-h mouse middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion model.

Cannabidiol was intraperitoneally administrated immediately before and 3h after cerebral ischemia.

Cannabidiol significantly prevented infarction and MPO activity at 20h after reperfusion.

Cannabidiol inhibited the MPO-positive cells expressing HMGB1 and also decreased the expression level of HMGB1 in plasma.

In addition, cannabidiol decreased the number of Iba1- and GFAP-positive cells at 3 days after cerebral ischemia.

Moreover, cannabidiol improved neurological score and motor coordination on the rota-rod test.

Our results suggest that cannabidiol inhibits monocyte/macropharge expressing HMGB1 followed by preventing glial activation and neurological impairment induced by cerebral ischemia.

Cannabidiol will open new therapeutic possibilities for post-ischemic injury via HMGB1-inhibiting mechanism.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18634812

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The CB1 Antagonist, SR141716A, Is Protective in Permanent Photothrombotic Cerebral Ischemia.

“Modulation of the endocannabinoid system has been shown to have a significant impact on outcomes in animal models of stroke.

We have previously reported a protective effect of the CB1 antagonist, SR141716A, in a transient reperfusion mouse model of cerebral ischemia. This protective effect was in part mediated by activation of the 5HT1A receptor.

Here we have examined its effect in a mouse model of permanent ischemia induced by photoinjury.

The CB1 antagonist was found to be protective in this model.

As was the case following transient ischemia reperfusion, SR141716A (5mg/kg) resulted in smaller infarct fractions and stroke volumes when utilized both as a pretreatment and as a post-treatment. In contrast to the effect in a transient ischemia model, the pretreatment effect did not depend on the 5HT1A receptor.

Neurological function correlated favorably to the reduction in stroke size when SR141716A was given as a pretreatment.

With the incidence of stroke predicted to rise in parallel with an ever aging population, understanding mechanisms underlying ischemia and therapeutics remains a paramount goal of research.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27453059

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Stimulated CB1 Cannabinoid Receptor Inducing Ischemic Tolerance and Protecting Neuron from Cerebral Ischemia.

“Anandamide system is mainly made up of cannabinoid receptors, their endogenous ligands and some related enzymes. Activation of the system mediates various molecular events, thereafter leading to vasodilation, bradycardia and anti-inflammation.

The stimulated cannabinoid receptors may take part in protection of endothelial cells from injury and therefore can be potential targets in therapy for some diseases, especially cardio or cerebral vascular disturbances.

Cerebral ischemia is a deadly disease that modern people have to face and will probably face for a long period of time. Ischemic tolerance has the protective effect of brain as an endogenous event in cerebral ischemia, in which variety of inducers such as transient cerebral ischemia, hypoxia, hypothermia and drug agents are involved.

Most of cannabinoid 1 receptors (CB1Rs), a member in G protein-coupled receptor family, exist in central nervous systems.

Mechanism of neuroprotection mediated by the receptor is considered through facilitating neurotransmitter release and regulating other molecular events. In this review, advance of the neuroprotection against cerebral ischemia and the mechanism of the action are overviewed.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27142423

“Cerebral ischemia or brain ischemia, is a condition that occurs when there isn’t enough blood flow to the brain to meet metabolic demand. This leads to limited oxygen supply or cerebral hypoxia and leads to the death of brain tissue, cerebral infarction, or ischemic stroke. It is a sub-type of stroke along with subarachnoid hemorrhage and intracerebral hemorrhage. There are two kinds of ischemia: focal ischemia: confined to a specific region of the brain; global ischemia: encompasses wide areas of brain tissue.”  http://www.columbianeurosurgery.org/conditions/cerebral-ischemia/

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