Cannabis by product helps reduce effects of Parkinson disease medication

“Researchers from Brazil’s prestigious University of Sao Paulo have discovered that marihuana contains substances which can help ease the collateral effects of medicines prescribed to patients suffering from Parkinson disease.”

Brazilian researchers have tested the positive effects of canabiodiol 

“Six patients with Parkinson were given during a whole month small doses of “canabiodiol” one of the 400 substances in marihuana, following which encouraging results were confirmed according to scientists from the Riberao Preto Medicine School from the SP University.

“Patients with Parkinson developed improvements in their sleeping alterations, in their psychotic symptoms and could even reduce their trembling” said psychiatrist Jose Alexander Crippa, Neuro-sciences Department professor.

The paper on the discovery was published last November and next year an additional paper with test results on the anxiolytic effects of “canabiodiol” in patients with obsession and compulsion disorders will be released.

A group of voluntary patients with obsessive and compulsive conducts were medicated with the substance 70 minutes before facing situations that forced them into anxiety fits, and “improvements were evident”.”

http://en.mercopress.com/2009/12/30/cannabis-by-product-helps-reduce-effects-of-parkinson-disease-medication

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Cannabinoids.

“Since the discovery of an endogenous cannabinoid system, research into the pharmacology and therapeutic potential of cannabinoids has steadily increased. Two subtypes of G-protein coupled cannabinoid receptors, CB(1) and CB(1), have been cloned and several putative endogenous ligands (endocannabinoids) have been detected during the past 15 years. The main endocannabinoids are arachidonoyl ethanolamide (anandamide) and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG), derivatives of arachidonic acid, that are produced “on demand” by cleavage of membrane lipid precursors.

 Besides phytocannabinoids of the cannabis plant, modulators of the cannabinoid system comprise synthetic agonists and antagonists at the CB receptors and inhibitors of endocannabinoid degradation. Cannabinoid receptors are distributed in the central nervous system and many peripheral tissues, including immune system, reproductive and gastrointestinal tracts, sympathetic ganglia, endocrine glands, arteries, lung and heart. There is evidence for some non-receptor dependent mechanisms of cannabinoids and for endocannabinoid effects mediated by vanilloid receptors.

Properties of CB receptor agonists that are of therapeutic interest include analgesia, muscle relaxation, immunosuppression, anti-inflammation, antiallergic effects, improvement of mood, stimulation of appetite, antiemesis, lowering of intraocular pressure, bronchodilation, neuroprotection and antineoplastic effects. The current main focus of clinical research is their efficacy in chronic pain and neurological disorders. CB receptor antagonists are under investigation for medical use in obesity and nicotine addiction. Additional potential was proposed for the treatment of alcohol and heroine dependency, schizophrenia, conditions with lowered blood pressure, Parkinson’s disease and memory impairment in Alzheimer’s disease.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16266285

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Cannabis/Marijuana: A Parkinson’s Cure

“This is a pretty raw video, but we think it shows better than any scientific article the powerful healing nature of Cannabis.  How can you beat a medicine that can be grown and prepared at virtually no cost, that not only has no side effects, but instead leaves you happy?

In this video, a man suffering from Parkinson’s takes a puff of Cannabis at about 2 minutes.  By 6 minutes into the video, he is no longer shaking, but laughing!  They also speak of *hemp oil, which is the most potent form of medical marijuana.

People with Parkinsons and other neurological disorders are often prescribed a myriad of strong pharmaceutical medications that can produce horrendous side effects….. side effects are not small issues.  They usually  require additional medication.  After a while, the liver and kidneys can become irrevocably damaged. As for the safety of the pharmaceutical medicines, we recommend this video: Marijuana is EXTREMELY dangerous.”

http://patients4medicalmarijuana.wordpress.com/2009/09/22/cannabismarijuana-a-parkinsons-cure/

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Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ⁹-THC) exerts a direct neuroprotective effect in a human cell culture model of Parkinson’s disease.

Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology

“Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ⁹-THC) is neuroprotective in models of Parkinson’s disease (PD).

Although CB1 receptors are increased within the basal ganglia of PD patients and animal models, current evidence suggests a role for CB1 receptor-independent mechanisms.

Here, we utilized a human neuronal cell culture PD model to further investigate the protective properties of Δ⁹-THC.

We found CB1 receptor up-regulation in response to MPP+, lactacystin and paraquat and a protective effect of Δ⁹-THC against all three toxins. This neuroprotective effect was not reproduced by the CB1 receptor agonist WIN55,212-2 or blocked by the CB1 antagonist AM251. Furthermore, the antioxidants α-tocopherol and butylhydroxytoluene as well as the antioxidant cannabinoids, nabilone and cannabidiol were unable to elicit the same neuroprotection as Δ⁹-THC.

 

We have demonstrated up-regulation of the CB1 receptor in direct response to neuronal injury in a human PD cell culture model, and a direct neuronal protective effect of Δ⁹-THC that may be mediated through PPARγ activation.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22236282

“In conclusion, we have demonstrated up-regulation of the CB1 receptor in a human cell culture model of PD, as well as a direct neuroprotective effect of the phytocannabinoid, Δ9-THC, not mediated by the CB2 receptor. Although a CB1 receptor-mediated effect cannot totally be excluded, we propose that activation of PPARγ leading to antioxidant effects is highly relevant in mediating the neuroprotection afforded by Δ9-THC in our model.”

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2990.2011.01248.x/full

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Symptom-relieving and neuroprotective effects of the phytocannabinoid Δ9-THCV in animal models of Parkinson’s disease

“Previous findings have indicated that a cannabinoid, such as Δ(9)-THCV, which has antioxidant properties and the ability to activate CB(2) receptors but to block CB(1) , might be a promising therapy for alleviating symptoms and delaying neurodegeneration in Parkinson’s disease (PD).

…Given its antioxidant properties and its ability to activate CB(2) but to block CB(1) receptors, Δ(9)-THCV has a promising pharmacological profile for delaying disease progression in PD and also for ameliorating parkinsonian symptoms…

Conclusion

In summary, given its antioxidant properties and its ability to activate CB2 but block CB1 receptors at a dose of 2 mg·kg−1, Δ9-THCV seems to have an interesting and therapeutically promising pharmacological profile. Thus, in contrast to other phytocannabinoids that have been investigated to date, it shows promise both for the treatment of disease progression in PD and for the relief of PD symptoms. This represents an important advance in the search for potential novel anti-parkinsonian agents, since Δ9-THCV administered alone or in combination with CBD may provide a much needed improved treatment for PD.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3165958/

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Therapeutic effects of Delta9-THC and modafinil in a marmoset Parkinson model.

Abstract

“Current therapies for Parkinson’s disease (PD) like l-dopa and dopamine (DA) agonists have declined efficacy after long term use. Therefore, research towards supplementary or alternative medication is needed. The implementation in PD can be expedited by application of compounds already used in the clinic. In this study the therapeutic effects of the psychoactive compounds Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta(9)-THC) and modafinil were tested in the 1-methyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-marmoset model for PD. The anti-parkinson effects of Delta(9)-THC (4 mg/kg) and modafinil (100 mg/kg) in parkinsonian marmosets were assessed with two behavioral rating scales covering parkinsonian symptoms and involuntary movements and two test systems assessing the locomotor activity and hand-eye coordination. Delta(9)-THC improved activity and hand-eye coordination, but induced compound-related side-effects. Modafinil improved activity and observed parkinsonian symptoms but not hand-eye coordination. It can be concluded that both compounds have therapeutic values and could supplement existing therapies for PD.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18222654

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Evaluation of the neuroprotective effect of cannabinoids in a rat model of Parkinson’s disease: importance of antioxidant and cannabinoid receptor-independent properties.

Abstract

“We have recently demonstrated that two plant-derived cannabinoids, Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol (CBD), are neuroprotective in an animal model of Parkinson’s disease (PD), presumably because of their antioxidant properties. To further explore this issue, we examined the neuroprotective effects of a series of cannabinoid-based compounds, with more selectivity for different elements of the cannabinoid signalling system, in rats with unilateral lesions of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons caused by local application of 6-hydroxydopamine. We used the CB1 receptor agonist arachidonyl-2-chloroethylamide (ACEA), the CB2 receptor agonist HU-308, the non-selective agonist WIN55,212-2, and the inhibitors of the endocannabinoid inactivation AM404 and UCM707, all of them administered i.p. Daily administration of ACEA or WIN55,212-2 did not reverse 6-hydroxydopamine-induced dopamine (DA) depletion in the lesioned side, whereas HU-308 produced a small recovery that supports a possible involvement of CB2 but not CB1 receptors. AM404 produced a marked recovery of 6-hydroxydopamine-induced DA depletion and tyrosine hydroxylase deficit in the lesioned side. Possibly, this is caused by the antioxidant properties of AM404, which are derived from the presence of a phenolic group in its structure, rather than by the capability of AM404 to block the endocannabinoid transporter, because UCM707, another transporter inhibitor devoid of antioxidant properties, did not produce the same effect. None of these effects were observed in non-lesioned contralateral structures. We also examined the timing for the effect of CBD to provide neuroprotection in this rat model of PD. We found that CBD, as expected, was able to recover 6-hydroxydopamine-induced DA depletion when it was administered immediately after the lesion, but it failed to do that when the treatment started 1 week later. In addition, the effect of CBD implied an upregulation of mRNA levels for Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase, a key enzyme in endogenous defenses against oxidative stress. In summary, our results indicate that those cannabinoids having antioxidant cannabinoid receptor-independent properties provide neuroprotection against the progressive degeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons occurring in PD. In addition, the activation of CB2 (but not CB1) receptors, or other additional mechanisms, might also contribute to some extent to the potential of cannabinoids in this disease.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17196181

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Survey on cannabis use in Parkinson’s Disease: subjective improvement of motor symptoms.

Abstract

“An anonymous questionnaire sent to all patients attending the Prague Movement Disorder Centre revealed that 25% of 339 respondents had taken cannabis and 45.9% of these described some form of benefit.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15372606

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Cannabinoids and Parkinson’s disease.

Abstract

“Cannabinoid-based medicines have been proposed as clinically promising therapies in Parkinson’s disease (PD), given the prominent modulatory function played by the cannabinoid signaling system in the basal ganglia. Supporting this pharmacological potential, the cannabinoid signaling system experiences a biphasic pattern of changes during the progression of PD. Thus, early and presymptomatic stages, characterized by neuronal malfunctioning but little evidence of neuronal death, are associated with desensitization/downregulation of CB(1) receptors. It was proposed that these losses may be part of the pathogenesis itself, since they can aggravate different cytotoxic insults which are controlled in part by cannabinoid signals, mainly excitotoxicity but also oxidative stress and glial activation. By contrast, intermediate and, in particular, advanced stages of parkinsonism characterized by a profound nigral degeneration and occurrence of major parkinsonian symptoms (e.g. bradykinesia), are associated with upregulatory responses of CB(1) receptors, possibly CB(2) receptors too, and the endocannabinoid ligands for both receptor types. This would explain the motor inhibition typical of this disease and the potential proposed for CB(1) receptor antagonists in attenuating the bradykinesia typical of PD. In addition, certain cannabinoid agonists have been proposed to serve as neuroprotective molecules in PD, given their well-demonstrated capability to reduce excitotoxicity, calcium influx, glial activation and, in particular, oxidative injury that cooperatively contribute to the degeneration of nigral neurons. However, the potential of cannabinoid-based medicines in PD have been still scarcely studied at the clinical level despite the existence of solid and promising preclinical evidence. Considering the relevance of these preclinical data, the need for finding treatments for motor symptoms that may be alternative to classic dopaminergic replacement therapy, and the lack of efficient neuroprotective strategies in PD, we believe it is of major interest to develop further studies that allow the promising expectations generated for these molecules to progress from the present preclinical evidence towards a real clinical application.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19839934

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An overview of Parkinson’s disease and the cannabinoid system and possible benefits of cannabinoid-based treatments.

Abstract

“Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a slowly progressive neurodegenerative disorder with a heterogeneous clinical picture and a variable rate of progression. PD is characterized by degeneration of the pigmented neuromelanin bearing cells of the pars compacta of the substantia nigra that leads to a severe dopaminergic denervation of the striatum. Current treatments for PD rely on dopamine replacement therapy, most commonly with the dopamine precursor levodopa. Despite the many recent advances in the symptomatic treatment of PD, there is still no realistic prospect for a cure. In recent years, new data support the idea of a relevant role for the cannabinoid system in PD. As cannabinoids have neuroprotective properties, they have been proposed as potentially useful neuroprotective substances in PD, as well as to alleviate some symptoms in specific circumstances (i.e. parkinsonian tremor associated with overactivity to the subthalamic nucleus; levodopa-induced dyskinesia). By contrast, CB(1) receptor antagonists might be useful to reduce bradykinesia in patients refractory to classic levodopa treatment. The present article will review all data about the relationship between PD and the cannabinoid system including: i) the usefulness of cannabinoid-related compounds to alleviate some PD symptoms; ii) that cannabinoid-based compounds might provide protection against the progression of neuronal injury characteristic of this disease; iii) the influence of cannabinoids on local inflammatory events associated with the pathogenesis in PD. Collectively, all these evidence support that the management of the cannabinoid system might represent a new approach to the treatment of PD.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17168732

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