Spontaneous, anecdotal, retrospective, open‐label study on the efficacy, safety and tolerability of cannabis galenical preparation (Bedrocan)

Image result for Int J Pharm Pract.“Our main aim was to investigate the short‐term therapeutic effects, safety/tolerability and potential side effects of the cannabis galenical preparation (Bedrocan) in patients with a range of chronic conditions unresponsive to other treatments.

These data suggest that a cannabis galenical preparation may be therapeutically effective and safe for the symptomatic treatment of some chronic diseases.

The findings suggested that patients affected by chronic long‐standing (months or years) advanced disease, who had not responded to standard treatment, had improved symptoms when they were treated with Bedrocan. The galenical treatment contributed not only to decreased pain but also to restored physical function in this cohort after 3 months and improvement in overall QOL.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6593769/

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Investigating the safety and efficacy of nabilone for the treatment of agitation in patients with moderate-to-severe Alzheimer’s disease: Study protocol for a cross-over randomized controlled trial.

Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications“Agitation is a prevalent and difficult-to-treat symptom in patients with moderate-to-severe Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Though there are nonpharmacological and pharmacological interventions recommended for the treatment of agitation, the efficacy of these are modest and not always consistent. Furthermore, the safety profiles of currently prescribed medications are questionable.

Nabilone, a synthetic cannabinoid, has a distinct pharmacological profile that may provide a safer and more effective treatment for agitation, while potentially having benefits for weight and pain. Additionally, emerging evidence suggests nabilone may have neuroprotective effects.

We describe a clinical trial investigating the safety and efficacy of nabilone for the treatment of agitation in patients with moderate-to-severe AD.

A safe and efficacious pharmacological intervention for agitation, with effects on pain and weight loss in patients with moderate-to-severe AD could increase quality-of-life, reduce caregiver stress and avoid unnecessary institutionalization and related increases in health care costs.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31338476

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2451865418301789?via%3Dihub

Nabilone is a man-made drug similar to the natural substances found in marijuana (cannabis).” https://www.webmd.com/drugs/2/drug-144706/nabilone-oral/details

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

From Cannabinoids and Neurosteroids to Statins and the Ketogenic Diet: New Therapeutic Avenues in Rett Syndrome?

Image result for frontiers in neuroscience “Rett syndrome (RTT) is an X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder caused mainly by mutations in the MECP2 gene, being one of the leading causes of mental disability in females.

Epilepsy is one of the most common symptoms in RTT, occurring in 60 to 80% of RTT cases, being associated with worsening of other symptoms. At this point, no cure for RTT is available and there is a pressing need for the discovery of new drug candidates to treat its severe symptoms.

New and exciting evidence has been gathered and the etiopathogenesis of this complex, severe and untreatable disease is slowly being unfolded. Advances in gene editing techniques have prompted cure-oriented research in RTT. Nonetheless, at this point, finding a cure is a distant reality, highlighting the importance of further investigating the basic pathological mechanisms of this disease.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31333401

“Very recently, a new study using CBDV has confirmed the potential of this particular phytocannabinoid in RTT.  The promising antiseizure effects of CBD, even in cases of refractory-epilepsy, observed in both clinical trials with humans and in laboratory animals, the effects of combinations of CBD and Δ9-THC in controlling muscle spasticity and motor symptoms, and the positive results of CBDV administration in two different mouse models of RTT, place cannabinoids as a viable therapeutic strategy in RTT. Moreover, CBD positively modifies impairments in motor, cognitive and social processes in animal models, further highlighting the potential of cannabinoid molecules to tackle RTT-symptomology.”

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnins.2019.00680/full

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Cannabidiol binding and negative allosteric modulation at the cannabinoid type 1 receptor in the presence of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol: An In Silico study.

Image result for plos one “Recent evidence has raised in discussion the possibility that cannabidiol can act as a negative allosteric modulator of the cannabinoid type 1 receptor. Here we have used computational methods to study the modulation exerted by cannabidiol on the effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in the cannabinoid receptor type 1 and the possibility of direct receptor blockade. We propose a putative allosteric binding site that is located in the N-terminal region of receptor, partially overlapping the orthosteric binding site. Molecular dynamics simulations reveled a coordinated movement involving the outward rotation of helixes 1 and 2 and subsequent expansion of the orthosteric binding site upon cannabidiol binding. Finally, changes in the cytoplasmic region and high helix 8 mobility were related to impaired receptor internalization. Together, these results offer a possible explanation to how cannabidiol can directly modulate effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on the cannabinoid receptor type 1.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31335889

https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0220025

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Dosage Related Efficacy and Tolerability of Cannabidiol in Children With Treatment-Resistant Epileptic Encephalopathy: Preliminary Results of the CARE-E Study.

 Image result for frontiers in neurology“There is uncertainty regarding the appropriate dose of Cannabidiol (CBD) for childhood epilepsy.

We present the preliminary data of seven participants from the Cannabidiol in Children with Refractory Epileptic Encephalopathy (CARE-E) study.

Methods: The study is an open-label, prospective, dose-escalation trial. Participants received escalating doses of a Cannabis Herbal Extract (CHE) preparation of 1:20 Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC): CBD up to 10-12 mg CBD/kg/day. Seizure frequency was monitored in daily logs, participants underwent regular electroencephalograms, and parents filled out modified Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy (QOLCE) and Side Effect rating scale questionnaires. Steady-state trough levels (Css, Min) of selected cannabinoids were quantified.

Results: All seven participants tolerated the CHE up to 10-12 mg CBD/kg/day and had improvements in seizure frequency and QOLCE scores. CSS, Min plasma levels for CBD, THC, and cannabichromene (CBC) showed dose-independent pharmacokinetics in all but one participant. CSS, Min CBD levels associated with a >50% reduction in seizures and seizure freedom were lower than those reported previously with purified CBD. In most patients, CSS, Min levels of THC remained lower than what would be expected to cause intoxication.

Conclusion: The preliminary data suggest an initial CBD target dose of 5-6 mg/kg/day when a 1:20 THC:CBD CHE is used. Possible non-linear pharmacokinetics of CBD and CBC needs investigation. The reduction in seizure frequency seen suggests improved seizure control when a whole plant CHE is used. Plasma THC levels suggest a low risk of THC intoxication when a 1:20 THC:CBD CHE is used in doses up to 12 mg/kg CBD/kg/day.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31333569

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fneur.2019.00716/full

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Pharmacology of Medical Cannabis.

 “The Cannabis plant has been used for many of years as a medicinal agent in the relief of pain and seizures. It contains approximately 540 natural compounds including more than 100 that have been identified as phytocannabinoids due to their shared chemical structure. The predominant psychotropic component is Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), while the major non-psychoactive ingredient is cannabidiol (CBD). These compounds have been shown to be partial agonists or antagonists at the prototypical cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2. The therapeutic actions of Δ9-THC and CBD include an ability to act as analgesics, anti-emetics, anti-inflammatory agents, anti-seizure compounds and as protective agents in neurodegeneration. However, there is a lack of well-controlled, double blind, randomized clinical trials to provide clarity on the efficacy of either Δ9-THC or CBD as therapeutics. Moreover, the safety concerns regarding the unwanted side effects of Δ9-THC as a psychoactive agent preclude its widespread use in the clinic. The legalization of cannabis for medicinal purposes and for recreational use in some regions will allow for much needed research on the pharmacokinetics and pharmocology of medical cannabis. This brief review focuses on the use of cannabis as a medicinal agent in the treatment of pain, epilepsy and neurodegenerative diseases. Despite the paucity of information, attention is paid to the mechanisms by which medical cannabis may act to relieve pain and seizures.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31332738

https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-3-030-21737-2_8

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Cannabinoid Signaling in Cancer.

“The family of chemical structures that interact with a cannabinoid receptor are broadly termed cannabinoids. Traditionally known for their psychotropic effects and their use as palliative medicine in cancer, cannabinoids are very versatile and are known to interact with several orphan receptors besides cannabinoid receptors (CBR) in the body. Recent studies have shown that several key pathways involved in cell growth, differentiation and, even metabolism and apoptosis crosstalk with cannabinoid signaling. Several of these pathways including AKT, EGFR, and mTOR are known to contribute to tumor development and metastasis, and cannabinoids may reverse their effects, thereby by inducing apoptosis, autophagy and modulating the immune system. In this book chapter, we explore how cannabinoids regulate diverse signaling mechanisms in cancer and immune cells within the tumor microenvironment and whether they impart a therapeutic effect. We also provide some important insight into the role of cannabinoids in cellular and whole body metabolism in the context of tumor inhibition. Finally, we highlight recent and ongoing clinical trials that include cannabinoids as a therapeutic strategy and several combinational approaches towards novel therapeutic opportunities in several invasive cancer conditions.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31332734

https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-3-030-21737-2_4

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Cannabinoid Interactions with Proteins: Insights from Structural Studies.

 “Cannabinoids have been widely used for recreational and medicinal purposes. The increasing legalization of cannabinoid use and the growing success in Medicinal Chemistry of cannabinoids have fueled recent interest in cannabinoid-sensing sites in receptor proteins. Here, we review structural data from high-resolution cryo-EM and crystallography studies that depict phytocannabinoid, endocannabinoid, and synthetic cannabinoid molecules bound to various proteins. The latter include antigen-binding fragment (Fab), cellular retinol binding protein 2 (CRBP2), fatty acid-binding protein 5 (FABP5), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR γ), and cannabinoid receptor types 1 and 2 (CB1 and CB2). Cannabinoid-protein complexes reveal the complex design of cannabinoid binding sites that are usually presented by conventional ligand-binding pockets on respective proteins. However, subtle differences in cannabinoid interaction with amino acids within the binding pocket often result in diverse consequences for protein function. The rapid increase in available structural data on cannabinoid-protein interactions will ultimately direct drug design efforts toward rendering highly potent cannabinoid-related pharmacotherapies that are devoid of side effects.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31332733

https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-3-030-21737-2_3

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Endocannabinoid System Components: Overview and Tissue Distribution.

 “Marijuana/cannabinoid research has been transformed into mainstream science during the last half-century. Evidence based research and remarkable biotechnological advances demonstrate that phytocannabinoids and endocannabinoid (eCBs) acting on cannabinoid receptors (CBRs) regulate various aspects of human physiological, behavioral, immunological and metabolic functions. The distribution and function of the components of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) in the central nervous system (CNS) and immune processes have garnished significant research focus with major milestones. With these advances in biotechnology, rapid extension of the ECS research in the periphery has gained momentum. In this chapter, we review the components and tissue distribution of this previously unknown but ubiquitous and complex ECS that is involved in almost all aspects of mammalian physiology and pathology.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31332731

https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-3-030-21737-2_1

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

The Potential of Cannabidiol as a Treatment for Psychosis and Addiction: Who Benefits Most? A Systematic Review.

jcm-logo

“The endogenous cannabinoid (eCB) system plays an important role in the pathophysiology of both psychotic disorders and substance use disorders (SUDs). The non-psychoactive cannabinoid compound, cannabidiol (CBD) is a highly promising tool in the treatment of both disorders. Here we review human clinical studies that investigated the efficacy of CBD treatment for schizophrenia, substance use disorders, and their comorbidity. In particular, we examined possible profiles of patients who may benefit the most from CBD treatment. CBD, either as monotherapy or added to regular antipsychotic medication, improved symptoms in patients with schizophrenia, with particularly promising effects in the early stages of illness. A potential biomarker is the level of anandamide in blood. CBD and THC mixtures showed positive effects in reducing short-term withdrawal and craving in cannabis use disorders. Studies on schizophrenia and comorbid substance use are lacking. Future studies should focus on the effects of CBD on psychotic disorders in different stages of illness, together with the effects on comorbid substance use. These studies should use standardized measures to assess cannabis use. In addition, future efforts should be taken to study the relationship between the eCB system, GABA/glutamate, and the immune system to reveal the underlying neurobiology of the effects of CBD.”

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous