Anti-inflammatory role of cannabidiol and O-1602 in cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in mice.

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“The anti-inflammatory effects of O-1602 and cannabidiol (CBD), the ligands of G protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55), on experimental acute pancreatitis (AP) were investigated.

Cannabidiol or O-1602 treatment significantly improved the pathological changes of mice with AP and decreased the enzyme activities, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor α; levels, and the myeloperoxidase activities in plasma and in the organ tissues.

G protein-coupled receptor 55 mRNA and protein expressed in the pancreatic tissue, and the expressions were decreased in the mice with AP, and either CBD or O-1602 attenuated these changes to a certain extent.

CONCLUSION:

Cannabidiol and O-1602 showed anti-inflammatory effects in mice with AP and improved the expression of GPR55 in the pancreatic tissue as well.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22850623

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Cannabinoids Ameliorate Pain and Reduce Disease Pathology in Cerulein-Induced Acute Pancreatitis

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“The endocannabinoid system has been identified as a major regulator of physiological and pathological processes, such as pain, inflammation, cell growth, cell death, and as a regulator of diverse gastrointestinal functions, such as intestinal motility and secretion.

Although cannabinoid-induced analgesia was initially primarily attributed to the activation of cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) in the nervous system, later studies demonstrated a contribution of cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2), localized peripherally on immune cells as well as in the nervous system.

A complex interplay between endogenously released cannabinoids, such as anandamide or 2-arachidonoylglycerol, and their receptors both on inflammatory cells and neurons is involved in modulation of inflammatory pain.

In this article, we demonstrate the in vivo significance and therapeutic potential of cannabinoids in inflammation and pain associated with pancreatitis using human specimens and mouse models as test systems.

Our results are more in line with a recent study reporting a protective role for the endogenous cannabinoid system against colonic inflammation in a mouse model of experimental colitis.

Consistent with the above, we now show that acute pancreatitis, a visceral inflammatory disease in humans, is associated with an activation of the endocannabinoid system.

In humans, acute pancreatitis is associated with up-regulation of ligands as well as receptors of the endocannabinoid system in the pancreas. Furthermore, our results suggest a therapeutic potential for cannabinoids in abolishing pain associated with acute pancreatitis and in partially reducing inflammation and disease pathology in the absence of adverse side effects.

Because management of visceral inflammatory diseases should ideally include antinociceptive as well as anti-inflammatory components, our results lay a basis for testing the therapeutic value of cannabinoids as supplements to conventional analgesic therapy.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2268094/

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Cannabinoids Reduce Markers of Inflammation and Fibrosis in Pancreatic Stellate Cells

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“While cannabinoids have been shown to ameliorate liver fibrosis, their effects in chronic pancreatitis and on pancreatic stellate cells (PSC) are unknown.

The activity of the endocannabinoid system was evaluated in human chronic pancreatitis (CP) tissues.

Augmentation of the endocannabinoid system via exogenously administered cannabinoid receptor agonists specifically induces a functionally and metabolically quiescent pancreatic stellate cell phenotype and may thus constitute an option to treat inflammation and fibrosis in chronic pancreatitis.

Because drugs for the treatment of chronic pancreatitis should ideally exert anti-fibrotic and anti-inflammatory properties, their bimodal effects rather contradict a therapeutic use of CB-receptor antagonists and promote the hypothesis that (re-)activation of the (endo-)cannabinoid system in chronic pancreatitis may be beneficial for suppressing disease progress.

In conclusion, we show that the endocannabinoid system is downregulated in chronic pancreatitis and that its augmentation via exogenously administered cannabinoids specifically reduces activation of pancreatic stellate cells.

These experiments lay a basis for testing the value of synthetic cannabinoids in the treatment of chronic pancreatitis.”

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0001701

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Inhibition of pancreatic oxidative damage by stilbene derivative dihydro-resveratrol: implication for treatment of acute pancreatitis

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“Trans-resveratrol is a natural stilbenoid possessing multifarious pharmacological benefits; however, when orally consumed, it is rapidly metabolised by colonic microflora and converted to dihydro-resveratrol. Thus, this microbial metabolite is of great therapeutic relevance.

Trans-resveratrol (trans-3,5,4′-trihydroxystilbene) is a natural phenolic derivative of the stilbenoid family found in skins of red grapes, berries and peanuts. As a renowned antioxidant used in a number of preclinical and clinical studies, its remarkable antioxidant activities are often related to its nature as a potent Sirtuin1 activator.

 Aside from being detected as a colonic metabolite of trans-resveratrol, dihydro-resveratrol is indeed produced by a number of plant species including Orchidaceae and Cannabis sativa L. as a phytoalexin against abiotic and biotic stress factors.
 In the present study, we aimed to examine whether dihydro-resveratrol, as a remedial agent, attenuates oxidative damage in pancreatic tissues of rats with cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis and to delineate its underlying molecular actions.
 Collectively, the current findings accentuate new mechanistic insight of dihydro-resveratrol in pancreatic oxidative damage, and advocate its therapeutic potential for the management of acute pancreatitis, particularly for patients unresponsive to trans-resveratrol due to the lack of proper microbial strains.
 In conclusion, we suggest that dihydro-resveratrol may serve as a therapeutic or an adjuvant agent for the management of acute pancreatitis, in particular to patients who have microbial restriction in metabolizing trans-resveratrol and received unresponsiveness.”
http://www.nature.com/articles/srep22859
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Modulation of Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell Signaling by Medicinal Cannabinoids.

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“Medical marijuana is increasingly prescribed as an analgesic for a growing number of indications, amongst which terminal cancer and multiple sclerosis.

In this study we aimed to investigate the immune-cell modulatory properties of medical cannabis.

Healthy volunteers were asked to ingest medical cannabis, and kinome profiling was used to generate comprehensive descriptions of the cannabis challenge on inflammatory signal transduction in the peripheral blood of these volunteers.

Results were related to both short term and long term effects in patients experimentally treated with a medical marijuana preparation for suffering from abdominal pain as a result of chronic pancreatitis or other causes.

The results reveal an immunosuppressive effect of cannabinoid preparations via deactivation of signaling through the pro-inflammatory p38 MAP kinase and mTOR pathways and a concomitant deactivation of the pro-mitogenic ERK pathway. However, long term cannabis exposure in two patients resulted in reversal of this effect.

While these data provide a powerful mechanistic rationale for the clinical use of medical marijuana in inflammatory and oncological disease, caution may be advised with sustained use of such preparations.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28174520

http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fnmol.2017.00014/full

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Cannabinoids, inflammation, and fibrosis.

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“Cannabinoids apparently act on inflammation through mechanisms different from those of agents such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).

As a class, the cannabinoids are generally free from the adverse effects associated with NSAIDs. Their clinical development thus provides a new approach to treatment of diseases characterized by acute and chronic inflammation and fibrosis.

A concise survey of the anti-inflammatory actions of the phytocannabinoids Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol, cannabichromene, and cannabinol is presented.

The endogenous cannabinoids, including the closely related lipoamino acids, are then discussed.

The review concludes with a presentation of a possible mechanism for the anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic actions of these substances.

Thus, several cannabinoids may be considered candidates for development as anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic agents.

Of special interest is their possible use for treatment of chronic inflammation, a major unmet medical need.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27435265

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ENDOCANNABINOID SYSTEM: A multi-facet therapeutic target.

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“Cannabis sativa is also popularly known as marijuana. It is being cultivated and used by man for recreational and medicinal purposes from many centuries.

Study of cannabinoids was at bay for very long time and its therapeutic value could not be adequately harnessed due to its legal status as proscribed drug in most of the countries.

The research of drugs acting on endocannabinoid system has seen many ups and down in recent past. Presently, it is known that endocannabinoids has role in pathology of many disorders and they also serve “protective role” in many medical conditions.

Several diseases like emesis, pain, inflammation, multiple sclerosis, anorexia, epilepsy, glaucoma, schizophrenia, cardiovascular disorders, cancer, obesity, metabolic syndrome related diseases, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease and Tourette’s syndrome could possibly be treated by drugs modulating endocannabinoid system.

Presently, cannabinoid receptor agonists like nabilone and dronabinol are used for reducing the chemotherapy induced vomiting. Sativex (cannabidiol and THC combination) is approved in the UK, Spain and New Zealand to treat spasticity due to multiple sclerosis. In US it is under investigation for cancer pain, another drug Epidiolex (cannabidiol) is also under investigation in US for childhood seizures. Rimonabant, CB1 receptor antagonist appeared as a promising anti-obesity drug during clinical trials but it also exhibited remarkable psychiatric side effect profile. Due to which the US Food and Drug Administration did not approve Rimonabant in US. It sale was also suspended across the EU in 2008.

Recent discontinuation of clinical trial related to FAAH inhibitor due to occurrence of serious adverse events in the participating subjects could be discouraging for the research fraternity. Despite of some mishaps in clinical trials related to drugs acting on endocannabinoid system, still lot of research is being carried out to explore and establish the therapeutic targets for both cannabinoid receptor agonists and antagonists.

One challenge is to develop drugs that target only cannabinoid receptors in a particular tissue and another is to invent drugs that acts selectively on cannabinoid receptors located outside the blood brain barrier. Besides this, development of the suitable dosage forms with maximum efficacy and minimum adverse effects is also warranted.

Another angle to be introspected for therapeutic abilities of this group of drugs is non-CB1 and non-CB2 receptor targets for cannabinoids.

In order to successfully exploit the therapeutic potential of endocannabinoid system, it is imperative to further characterize the endocannabinoid system in terms of identification of the exact cellular location of cannabinoid receptors and their role as “protective” and “disease inducing substance”, time-dependent changes in the expression of cannabinoid receptors.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27086601

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Cannabinoid CB1 receptors and mTORC1 signalling pathway interact to modulate glucose homeostasis.

“The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is an inter-cellular signalling mechanism that is present in the islets of Langerhans and plays a role in the modulation of insulin secretion and beta-cell mass expansion.

The mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is a key intra-cellular pathway involved in energy homeostasis and known to importantly affect pancreatic islet’s physiology.

These findings suggest a functional interaction between the ECS and the mTORC1 pathway within the endocrine pancreas and at the whole organism level, which could have implications for the development of new therapeutic approaches for pancreatic beta-cell diseases.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26563389

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Emerging role of cannabinoids in gastrointestinal and liver diseases: basic and clinical aspects.

“A multitude of physiological effects and putative pathophysiological roles have been proposed for the endogenous cannabinoid system in the gastrointestinal tract, liver and pancreas.

These range from effects on epithelial growth and regeneration, immune function, motor function, appetite control, fibrogenesis and secretion.

Cannabinoids have the potential for therapeutic application in gut and liver diseases.

Two exciting therapeutic applications in the area of reversing hepatic fibrosis as well as antineoplastic effects may have a significant impact in these diseases.

This review critically appraises the experimental and clinical evidence supporting the clinical application of cannabinoid receptor-based drugs in gastrointestinal, liver and pancreatic diseases.

Application of modern pharmacological principles will most probably expand the selective modulation of the cannabinoid system peripherally in humans.

We anticipate that, in addition to the approval in several countries of the CB(1) antagonist, rimonabant, for the treatment of obesity and associated metabolic dysfunctions, other cannabinoid modulators are likely to have an impact on human disease in the future, including hepatic fibrosis and neoplasia.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18397936

http://www.thctotalhealthcare.com/category/liver-disease/

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Therapeutic potential of cannabinoid medicines.

Drug Testing and Analysis

“Cannabis was extensively used as a medicine throughout the developed world in the nineteenth century but went into decline early in the twentieth century ahead of its emergence as the most widely used illicit recreational drug later that century. Recent advances in cannabinoid pharmacology alongside the discovery of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) have re-ignited interest in cannabis-based medicines.

The ECS has emerged as an important physiological system and plausible target for new medicines. Its receptors and endogenous ligands play a vital modulatory role in diverse functions including immune response, food intake, cognition, emotion, perception, behavioural reinforcement, motor co-ordination, body temperature, wake/sleep cycle, bone formation and resorption, and various aspects of hormonal control. In disease it may act as part of the physiological response or as a component of the underlying pathology.

In the forefront of clinical research are the cannabinoids delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol, and their contrasting pharmacology will be briefly outlined. The therapeutic potential and possible risks of drugs that inhibit the ECS will also be considered. This paper will then go on to review clinical research exploring the potential of cannabinoid medicines in the following indications: symptomatic relief in multiple sclerosis, chronic neuropathic pain, intractable nausea and vomiting, loss of appetite and weight in the context of cancer or AIDS, psychosis, epilepsy, addiction, and metabolic disorders.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24006213

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/dta.1529/abstract

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